Tag Archives: TensorFlow

Updates from Coral: Mendel Linux 4.0 and much more!

Posted by Carlos Mendonça (Product Manager), Coral TeamIllustration of the Coral Dev Board placed next to Fall foliage

Last month, we announced that Coral graduated out of beta, into a wider, global release. Today, we're announcing the next version of Mendel Linux (4.0 release Day) for the Coral Dev Board and SoM, as well as a number of other exciting updates.

We have made significant updates to improve performance and stability. Mendel Linux 4.0 release Day is based on Debian 10 Buster and includes upgraded GStreamer pipelines and support for Python 3.7, OpenCV, and OpenCL. The Linux kernel has also been updated to version 4.14 and U-Boot to version 2017.03.3.

We’ve also made it possible to use the Dev Board's GPU to convert YUV to RGB pixel data at up to 130 frames per second on 1080p resolution, which is one to two orders of magnitude faster than on Mendel Linux 3.0 release Chef. These changes make it possible to run inferences with YUV-producing sources such as cameras and hardware video decoders.

To upgrade your Dev Board or SoM, follow our guide to flash a new system image.

MediaPipe on Coral

MediaPipe is an open-source, cross-platform framework for building multi-modal machine learning perception pipelines that can process streaming data like video and audio. For example, you can use MediaPipe to run on-device machine learning models and process video from a camera to detect, track and visualize hand landmarks in real-time.

Developers and researchers can prototype their real-time perception use cases starting with the creation of the MediaPipe graph on desktop. Then they can quickly convert and deploy that same graph to the Coral Dev Board, where the quantized TensorFlow Lite model will be accelerated by the Edge TPU.

As part of this first release, MediaPipe is making available new experimental samples for both object and face detection, with support for the Coral Dev Board and SoM. The source code and instructions for compiling and running each sample are available on GitHub and on the MediaPipe documentation site.

New Teachable Sorter project tutorial

New Teachable Sorter project tutorial

A new Teachable Sorter tutorial is now available. The Teachable Sorter is a physical sorting machine that combines the Coral USB Accelerator's ability to perform very low latency inference with an ML model that can be trained to rapidly recognize and sort different objects as they fall through the air. It leverages Google’s new Teachable Machine 2.0, a web application that makes it easy for anyone to quickly train a model in a fun, hands-on way.

The tutorial walks through how to build the free-fall sorter, which separates marshmallows from cereal and can be trained using Teachable Machine.

Coral is now on TensorFlow Hub

Earlier this month, the TensorFlow team announced a new version of TensorFlow Hub, a central repository of pre-trained models. With this update, the interface has been improved with a fresh landing page and search experience. Pre-trained Coral models compiled for the Edge TPU continue to be available on our Coral site, but a select few are also now available from the TensorFlow Hub. On the site, you can find models featuring an Overlay interface, allowing you to test the model's performance against a custom set of images right from the browser. Check out the experience for MobileNet v1 and MobileNet v2.

We are excited to share all that Coral has to offer as we continue to evolve our platform. For a list of worldwide distributors, system integrators and partners, visit the new Coral partnerships page. We hope you’ll use the new features offered on Coral.ai as a resource and encourage you to keep sending us feedback at coral-support@google.com.

Using machine learning to tackle Fall Armyworm

Guest post by Nsubuga Hassan, CEO at Hansu Mobile and Intelligent Innovations, Android and Machine Learning DeveloperNazirini doing work on laptopIn 2016 Fall armyworm (FAW) was first reported in Africa. It has devastated maize crops across the continent.

Research shows the potential impact of FAW on continental wide maize yield lies between 8.3 and 20.6 million tonnes per year (total expected production of 39m tonnes per year); with losses lying between US$2,48m and US$6,19m per year (of a US$11,59m annual expected value). The impact of FAW is far reaching, and is now reported in many countries around the world.

Agriculture is the backbone of Uganda’s economy, employing 70% of the population. It contributes to half of Uganda’s export earnings and a quarter of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP). Fall armyworm posses a great threat on our livelihoods. Two people having a conversationWe are a small group of like minded developers living and working in Uganda. Most of our relatives grow maize so the impact of the worm was very close to home. We really felt like we needed to do something about it. Fall Armyworm that threatens cropsThe vast damage and yield losses in maize production, due to FAW, got the attention of global organizations, who are calling for innovators to help. It is the perfect time to apply machine learning. Our goal is to build an intelligent agent to help local farmers fight this pest in order to increase our food security.

Based on a Machine Learning Crash Course, our Google Developer Group (GDG) in Mbale hosted some study jams in May 2018, alongside several other code labs. This is where we first got hands-on experience using TensorFlow, from which the foundations were laid for the Farmers Companion app. Finally, we felt as though an intelligent solution to help farmers had been conceived.

Equipped with this knowledge & belief, the team embarked on collecting training data from nearby fields. This was done using a smartphone to take images, with the help of some GDG Mbale members. With farmers miles from town, and many fields inaccessible by road (not to mention the floods), this was not as simple as we had first hoped. To inhibit us further, our smartphones were (and still are) the only hard drives we had, thus decreasing the number of images & data we can capture in a day.

But we persisted! Once gathered, the images were sorted, one at a time, and categorized. With TensorFlow we re-trained a MobileNet, a technique known as transfer learning. We then used the TensorFlow Converter to generate a TensorFlow Lite FlatButter file which we deployed in an Android app. Demonstration of the Android app identifying the Fall armywormWe started with about 3956 images, but our dataset is growing exponentially. We are actively collecting more and more data to improve our model’s accuracy. The improvements in TensorFlow, with Keras high level APIs, has really made our approach to deep learning easy and enjoyable and we are now experimenting with TensorFlow 2.0.

The app is simple for the user. Once installed, the user focuses the camera through the app, on a maize crop. Then an image frame is picked and, using TensorFlow Lite, the image frame is analysed to look for Fall armyworm damage. Depending on the results from this phase, a suggestion of a possible solution is given.

The app is available for download and it is constantly undergoing updates, as we push for local farmers to adapt and use it. We strive to ensure a world with #ZeroHunger and believe technology can do a lot to help us achieve this.

We have so far been featured on a national TV station in Uganda, participated in the #hackAgainstHunger and ‘The International Symposium on Agricultural Innovations’ for family farmers, organized by the Food Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, where our solution was highlighted.

More recently, Google highlighted our work with this film:

We have embarked on scaling the solution to coffee disease and cassava diseases and will slowly be moving on to more. We have also introduced virtual reality to help farmers showcase good farming practices and various training.

Our plan is to collect more data and to scale the solution to handle more pests and diseases. We are also shifting to cloud services and Firebase to improve and serve our model better despite the lack of resources. With improved hardware and greater localised understanding, there's huge scope for Machine Learning to make a difference in the fight against hunger.

A New Workflow for Collaborative Machine Learning Research in Biodiversity



The promise of machine learning (ML) for species identification is coming to fruition, revealing its transformative potential in biodiversity research. International workshops such as FGVC and LifeCLEF feature competitions to develop top performing classification algorithms for everything from wildlife camera trap images to pressed flower specimens on herbarium sheets. The encouraging results that have emerged from these competitions inspired us to expand the availability of biodiversity datasets and ML models from workshop-scale to global-scale.

Bringing powerful ML algorithms to the communities that need them requires more than the traditional “big data + big compute” equation. Institutions ranging from natural history museums to citizen science groups take great care to collect and annotate datasets, and the data they share have enabled numerous scientific research publications. But central to the tradition of scholarly research are the conventions of citation and attribution, and it follows that as ML extends its reach into the life sciences, it should bring with it appropriate counterparts to those conventions. More broadly, there is a growing awareness of the importance of ethics, fairness, and transparency within the ML community. As institutions develop and deploy applications of ML at scale, it is critical that they be designed with these considerations in mind.

This week at Biodiversity Next, in collaboration with the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), iNaturalist, and Visipedia, we are announcing a new workflow for biodiversity research institutions who would like to make use of ML. With its billion+ species occurrence count contributed by thousands of institutions around the globe, GBIF is playing a vital role in enabling this workflow, whether in terms of data aggregation, collaboration across teams, or standardizing citation practices. In the short term, the most important role relates to an emerging cultural shift in accepted practices for the use of mediated data for training of ML models. In the process of data mediation, GBIF helps ensure that training datasets for ML follow standardized licensing terms, use compatible taxonomies and data formats, and provide fair and sufficient data coverage for the ML task at hand by potentially sampling from multiple source datasets.

This new workflow comprises the following two components:
  1. To assist in developing and refining machine vision models, GBIF will package datasets, taking care to ensure license and citation practice are respected. The training datasets will be issued a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), and will be linked through the DOI citation graph.
  2. To assist application developers, Google and Visipedia will train and publish publicly accessible models with documentation on TensorFlow Hub. These models can then, in turn, be deployed in biodiversity research and citizen science efforts.
Case Study: Recognizing Fungi Species from Photos with the Interactive Mushroom Recognizer
As an illustration of the above workflow, we present an example of fungi recognition. The dataset in this case is curated by the Danish Mycological Society, and formatted, packaged, and shared by GBIF. The dataset provenance, model architecture, license information, and more can be found on the TF Hub model page, along with a live, interactive demonstration of the model that can run on user-supplied images.
Illustration of live, interactive Mushroom Recognizer, powered by a publicly available model trained on a fungi dataset provided by the Danish Mycological Society.
Invitation to Participate
For more information about this initiative, please visit the project page at GBIF. We look forward to engaging with institutions around the globe to enable new and innovative uses of ML for biodiversity.

Acknowledgements
We’d like to thank our collaborators at GBIF, iNaturalist, and Visipedia for working together to develop this workflow. At Google we would like to thank Christine Kaeser-Chen, Chenyang Zhang, Yulong Liu, Kiat Chuan Tan, Christy Cui, Arvi Gjoka, Denis Brulé, Cédric Deltheil, Clément Beauseigneur, Grace Chu, Andrew Howard, Sara Beery, and Katherine Chou.

Source: Google AI Blog


Coral moves out of beta

Posted by Vikram Tank (Product Manager), Coral Team

microchips on coral colored background

Last March, we launched Coral beta from Google Research. Coral helps engineers and researchers bring new models out of the data center and onto devices, running TensorFlow models efficiently at the edge. Coral is also at the core of new applications of local AI in industries ranging from agriculture to healthcare to manufacturing. We've received a lot of feedback over the past six months and used it to improve our platform. Today we’re thrilled to graduate Coral out of beta, into a wider, global release.

Coral is already delivering impact across industries, and several of our partners are including Coral in products that require fast ML inferencing at the edge.

In healthcare, Care.ai is using Coral to build a device that enables hospitals and care centers to respond quickly to falls, prevent bed sores, improve patient care, and reduce costs. Virgo SVS is also using Coral as the basis of a polyp detection system that helps doctors improve the accuracy of endoscopies.

In a very different use case, Olea Edge employs Coral to help municipal water utilities accurately measure the amount of water used by their commercial customers. Their Meter Health Analytics solution uses local AI to reduce waste and predict equipment failure in industrial water meters.

Nexcom is using Coral to build gateways with local AI and provide a platform for next-gen, AI-enabled IoT applications. By moving AI processing to the gateway, existing sensor networks can stay in service without the need to add AI processing to each node.

From prototype to production

Microchips on white background

Coral’s Dev Board is designed as an integrated prototyping solution for new product development. Under the heatsink is the detachable Coral SoM, which combines Google’s Edge TPU with the NXP IMX8M SoC, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connectivity, memory, and storage. We’re happy to announce that you can now purchase the Coral SoM standalone. We’ve also created a baseboard developer guide to help integrate it into your own production design.

Our Coral USB Accelerator allows users with existing system designs to add local AI inferencing via USB 2/3. For production workloads, we now offer three new Accelerators that feature the Edge TPU and connect via PCIe interfaces: Mini PCIe, M.2 A+E key, and M.2 B+M key. You can easily integrate these Accelerators into new products or upgrade existing devices that have an available PCIe slot.

The new Coral products are available globally and for sale at Mouser; for large volume sales, contact our sales team. By the end of 2019, we'll continue to expand our distribution of the Coral Dev Board and SoM into new markets including: Taiwan, Australia, New Zealand, India, Thailand, Singapore, Oman, Ghana and the Philippines.

Better resources

We’ve also revamped the Coral site with better organization for our docs and tools, a set of success stories, and industry focused pages. All of it can be found at a new, easier to remember URL Coral.ai.

To help you get the most out of the hardware, we’re also publishing a new set of examples. The included models and code can provide solutions to the most common on-device ML problems, such as image classification, object detection, pose estimation, and keyword spotting.

For those looking for a more in-depth application—and a way to solve the eternal problem of squirrels plundering your bird feeder—the Smart Bird Feeder project shows you how to perform classification with a custom dataset on the Coral Dev board.

Finally, we’ll soon release a new version of the Mendel OS that updates the system to Debian Buster, and we're hard at work on more improvements to the Edge TPU compiler and runtime that will improve the model development workflow.

The official launch of Coral is, of course, just the beginning, and we’ll continue to evolve the platform. Please keep sending us feedback at coral-support@google.com.

Coral summer updates: Post-training quant support, TF Lite delegate, and new models!

Posted by Vikram Tank (Product Manager), Coral Team

Summer updates cartoon

Coral’s had a busy summer working with customers, expanding distribution, and building new features — and of course taking some time for R&R. We’re excited to share updates, early work, and new models for our platform for local AI with you.

The compiler has been updated to version 2.0, adding support for models built using post-training quantization—only when using full integer quantization (previously, we required quantization-aware training)—and fixing a few bugs. As the Tensorflow team mentions in their Medium post “post-training integer quantization enables users to take an already-trained floating-point model and fully quantize it to only use 8-bit signed integers (i.e. `int8`).” In addition to reducing the model size, models that are quantized with this method can now be accelerated by the Edge TPU found in Coral products.

We've also updated the Edge TPU Python library to version 2.11.1 to include new APIs for transfer learning on Coral products. The new on-device back propagation API allows you to perform transfer learning on the last layer of an image classification model. The last layer of a model is removed before compilation and implemented on-device to run on the CPU. It allows for near-real time transfer learning and doesn’t require you to recompile the model. Our previously released imprinting API, has been updated to allow you to quickly retrain existing classes or add new ones while leaving other classes alone. You can now even keep the classes from the pre-trained base model. Learn more about both options for on-device transfer learning.

Until now, accelerating your model with the Edge TPU required that you write code using either our Edge TPU Python API or in C++. But now you can accelerate your model on the Edge TPU when using the TensorFlow Lite interpreter API, because we've released a TensorFlow Lite delegate for the Edge TPU. The TensorFlow Lite Delegate API is an experimental feature in TensorFlow Lite that allows for the TensorFlow Lite interpreter to delegate part or all of graph execution to another executor—in this case, the other executor is the Edge TPU. Learn more about the TensorFlow Lite delegate for Edge TPU.

Coral has also been working with Edge TPU and AutoML teams to release EfficientNet-EdgeTPU: a family of image classification models customized to run efficiently on the Edge TPU. The models are based upon the EfficientNet architecture to achieve the image classification accuracy of a server-side model in a compact size that's optimized for low latency on the Edge TPU. You can read more about the models’ development and performance on the Google AI Blog, and download trained and compiled versions on the Coral Models page.

And, as summer comes to an end we also want to share that Arrow offers a student teacher discount for those looking to experiment with the boards in class or the lab this year.

We're excited to keep evolving the Coral platform, please keep sending us feedback at coral-support@google.com.

Introducing TensorNetwork, an Open Source Library for Efficient Tensor Calculations

Originally posted on the Google AI Blog.

Many of the world's toughest scientific challenges, like developing high-temperature superconductors and understanding the true nature of space and time, involve dealing with the complexity of quantum systems. What makes these challenges difficult is that the number of quantum states in these systems is exponentially large, making brute-force computation infeasible. To deal with this, data structures called tensor networks are used. Tensor networks let one focus on the quantum states that are most relevant for real-world problems—the states of low energy, say—while ignoring other states that aren't relevant. Tensor networks are also increasingly finding applications in machine learning (ML). However, there remain difficulties that prohibit them from widespread use in the ML community: 1) a production-level tensor network library for accelerated hardware has not been available to run tensor network algorithms at scale, and 2) most of the tensor network literature is geared toward physics applications and creates the false impression that expertise in quantum mechanics is required to understand the algorithms.

In order to address these issues, we are releasing TensorNetwork, a brand new open source library to improve the efficiency of tensor calculations, developed in collaboration with the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics and X. TensorNetwork uses TensorFlow as a backend and is optimized for GPU processing, which can enable speedups of up to 100x when compared to work on a CPU. We introduce TensorNetwork in a series of papers, the first of which presents the new library and its API, and provides an overview of tensor networks for a non-physics audience. In our second paper we focus on a particular use case in physics, demonstrating the speedup that one gets using GPUs.

How are Tensor Networks Useful?

Tensors are multidimensional arrays, categorized in a hierarchy according to their order: e.g., an ordinary number is a tensor of order zero (also known as a scalar), a vector is an order-one tensor, a matrix is an order-two tensorDiagrammatic notation for tensors. and so on. While low-order tensors can easily be represented by an explicit array of numbers or with a mathematical symbol such as Tijnklm (where the number of indices represents the order of the tensor), that notation becomes very cumbersome once we start talking about high-order tensors. At that point it's useful to start using diagrammatic notation, where one simply draws a circle (or some other shape) with a number of lines, or legs, coming out of it—the number of legs being the same as the order of the tensor. In this notation, a scalar is just a circle, a vector has a single leg, a matrix has two legs, etc. Each leg of the tensor also has a dimension, which is the size of that leg. For example, a vector representing an object's velocity through space would be a three-dimensional, order-one tensor.
Diagrammatic notation for tensors.
The benefit of representing tensors in this way is to succinctly encode mathematical operations, e.g., multiplying a matrix by a vector to produce another vector, or multiplying two vectors to make a scalar. These are all examples of a more general concept called tensor contraction.
Diagrammatic notation for tensor contraction. Vector and matrix multiplication, as well as the matrix trace (i.e., the sum of the diagonal elements of a matrix), are all examples.
These are also simple examples of tensor networks, which are graphical ways of encoding the pattern of tensor contractions of several constituent tensors to form a new one. Each constituent tensor has an order determined by its own number of legs. Legs that are connected, forming an edge in the diagram, represent contraction, while the number of remaining dangling legs determines the order of the resultant tensor.
Left: The trace of the product of four matrices, tr(ABCD), which is a scalar. You can see that it has no dangling legs. Right: Three order-three tensors being contracted with three legs dangling, resulting in a new order-three tensor.
While these examples are very simple, the tensor networks of interest often represent hundreds of tensors contracted in a variety of ways. Describing such a thing would be very obscure using traditional notation, which is why the diagrammatic notation was invented by Roger Penrose in 1971.

Tensor Networks in Practice

Consider a collection of black-and-white images, each of which can be thought of as a list of N pixel values. A single pixel of a single image can be one-hot-encoded into a two-dimensional vector, and by combining these pixel encodings together we can make a 2N-dimensional one-hot encoding of the entire image. We can reshape that high-dimensional vector into an order-N tensor, and then add up all of the tensors in our collection of images to get a total tensor Ti1,i2,...,iN encapsulating the collection.
This sounds like a very wasteful thing to do: encoding images with about 50 pixels in this way would already take petabytes of memory. That's where tensor networks come in. Rather than storing or manipulating the tensor T directly, we instead represent T as the contraction of many smaller constituent tensors in the shape of a tensor network. That turns out to be much more efficient. For instance, the popular matrix product state (MPS) network would write T in terms of N much smaller tensors, so that the total number of parameters is only linear in N, rather than exponential.
The high-order tensor T is represented in terms of many low-order tensors in a matrix product state tensor network.
It's not obvious that large tensor networks can be efficiently created or manipulated while consistently avoiding the need for a huge amount of memory. But it turns out that this is possible in many cases, which is why tensor networks have been used extensively in quantum physics and, now, in machine learning. Stoudenmire and Schwab used the encoding just described to make an image classification model, demonstrating a new use for tensor networks. The TensorNetwork library is designed to facilitate exactly that kind of work, and our first paper describes how the library functions for general tensor network manipulations.

Performance in Physics Use-Cases

TensorNetwork is a general-purpose library for tensor network algorithms, and so it should prove useful for physicists as well. Approximating quantum states is a typical use-case for tensor networks in physics, and is well-suited to illustrate the capabilities of the TensorNetwork library. In our second paper, we describe a tree tensor network (TTN) algorithm for approximating the ground state of either a periodic quantum spin chain (1D) or a lattice model on a thin torus (2D), and implement the algorithm using TensorNetwork. We compare the use of CPUs with GPUs and observe significant computational speed-ups, up to a factor of 100, when using a GPU and the TensorNetwork library.
Computational time as a function of the bond dimension, χ. The bond dimension determines the size of the constituent tensors of the tensor network. A larger bond dimension means the tensor network is more powerful, but requires more computational resources to manipulate.

Conclusion and Future Work

These are the first in a series of planned papers to illustrate the power of TensorNetwork in real-world applications. In our next paper we will use TensorNetwork to classify images in the MNIST and Fashion-MNIST datasets. Future plans include time series analysis on the ML side, and quantum circuit simulation on the physics side. With the open source community, we are also always adding new features to TensorNetwork itself. We hope that TensorNetwork will become a valuable tool for physicists and machine learning practitioners.

Acknowledgements

The TensorNetwork library was developed by Chase Roberts, Adam Zalcman, and Bruce Fontaine of Google AI; Ashley Milsted, Martin Ganahl, and Guifre Vidal of the Perimeter Institute; and Jack Hidary and Stefan Leichenauer of X. We'd also like to thank Stavros Efthymiou at X for valuable contributions.

by Chase Roberts, Research Engineer, Google AI and Stefan Leichenauer, Research Scientist, X 

Introducing TensorNetwork, an Open Source Library for Efficient Tensor Calculations



Many of the world's toughest scientific challenges, like developing high-temperature superconductors and understanding the true nature of space and time, involve dealing with the complexity of quantum systems. What makes these challenges difficult is that the number of quantum states in these systems is exponentially large, making brute-force computation infeasible. To deal with this, data structures called tensor networks are used. Tensor networks let one focus on the quantum states that are most relevant for real-world problems—the states of low energy, say—while ignoring other states that aren't relevant. Tensor networks are also increasingly finding applications in machine learning (ML). However, there remain difficulties that prohibit them from widespread use in the ML community: 1) a production-level tensor network library for accelerated hardware has not been available to run tensor network algorithms at scale, and 2) most of the tensor network literature is geared toward physics applications and creates the false impression that expertise in quantum mechanics is required to understand the algorithms.

In order to address these issues, we are releasing TensorNetwork, a brand new open source library to improve the efficiency of tensor calculations, developed in collaboration with the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics and X. TensorNetwork uses TensorFlow as a backend and is optimized for GPU processing, which can enable speedups of up to 100x when compared to work on a CPU. We introduce TensorNetwork in a series of papers, the first of which presents the new library and its API, and provides an overview of tensor networks for a non-physics audience. In our second paper we focus on a particular use case in physics, demonstrating the speedup that one gets using GPUs.

How are Tensor Networks Useful?
Tensors are multidimensional arrays, categorized in a hierarchy according to their order: e.g., an ordinary number is a tensor of order zero (also known as a scalar), a vector is an order-one tensor, a matrix is an order-two tensor, and so on. While low-order tensors can easily be represented by an explicit array of numbers or with a mathematical symbol such as Tijnklm (where the number of indices represents the order of the tensor), that notation becomes very cumbersome once we start talking about high-order tensors. At that point it’s useful to start using diagrammatic notation, where one simply draws a circle (or some other shape) with a number of lines, or legs, coming out of it—the number of legs being the same as the order of the tensor. In this notation, a scalar is just a circle, a vector has a single leg, a matrix has two legs, etc. Each leg of the tensor also has a dimension, which is the size of that leg. For example, a vector representing an object’s velocity through space would be a three-dimensional, order-one tensor.


Diagrammatic notation for tensors.
The benefit of representing tensors in this way is to succinctly encode mathematical operations, e.g., multiplying a matrix by a vector to produce another vector, or multiplying two vectors to make a scalar. These are all examples of a more general concept called tensor contraction.

Diagrammatic notation for tensor contraction. Vector and matrix multiplication, as well as the matrix trace (i.e., the sum of the diagonal elements of a matrix), are all examples.
These are also simple examples of tensor networks, which are graphical ways of encoding the pattern of tensor contractions of several constituent tensors to form a new one. Each constituent tensor has an order determined by its own number of legs. Legs that are connected, forming an edge in the diagram, represent contraction, while the number of remaining dangling legs determines the order of the resultant tensor.
Left: The trace of the product of four matrices, tr(ABCD), which is a scalar. You can see that it has no dangling legs. Right: Three order-three tensors being contracted with three legs dangling, resulting in a new order-three tensor.
While these examples are very simple, the tensor networks of interest often represent hundreds of tensors contracted in a variety of ways. Describing such a thing would be very obscure using traditional notation, which is why the diagrammatic notation was invented by Roger Penrose in 1971.

Tensor Networks in Practice
Consider a collection of black-and-white images, each of which can be thought of as a list of N pixel values. A single pixel of a single image can be one-hot-encoded into a two-dimensional vector, and by combining these pixel encodings together we can make a 2N-dimensional one-hot encoding of the entire image. We can reshape that high-dimensional vector into an order-N tensor, and then add up all of the tensors in our collection of images to get a total tensor Ti1,i2,...,iN encapsulating the collection.

This sounds like a very wasteful thing to do: encoding images with about 50 pixels in this way would already take petabytes of memory. That’s where tensor networks come in. Rather than storing or manipulating the tensor T directly, we instead represent T as the contraction of many smaller constituent tensors in the shape of a tensor network. That turns out to be much more efficient. For instance, the popular matrix product state (MPS) network would write T in terms of N much smaller tensors, so that the total number of parameters is only linear in N, rather than exponential.
The high-order tensor T is represented in terms of many low-order tensors in a matrix product state tensor network.
It’s not obvious that large tensor networks can be efficiently created or manipulated while consistently avoiding the need for a huge amount of memory. But it turns out that this is possible in many cases, which is why tensor networks have been used extensively in quantum physics and, now, in machine learning. Stoudenmire and Schwab used the encoding just described to make an image classification model, demonstrating a new use for tensor networks. The TensorNetwork library is designed to facilitate exactly that kind of work, and our first paper describes how the library functions for general tensor network manipulations.

Performance in Physics Use-Cases
TensorNetwork is a general-purpose library for tensor network algorithms, and so it should prove useful for physicists as well. Approximating quantum states is a typical use-case for tensor networks in physics, and is well-suited to illustrate the capabilities of the TensorNetwork library. In our second paper, we describe a tree tensor network (TTN) algorithm for approximating the ground state of either a periodic quantum spin chain (1D) or a lattice model on a thin torus (2D), and implement the algorithm using TensorNetwork. We compare the use of CPUs with GPUs and observe significant computational speed-ups, up to a factor of 100, when using a GPU and the TensorNetwork library.
Computational time as a function of the bond dimension, χ. The bond dimension determines the size of the constituent tensors of the tensor network. A larger bond dimension means the tensor network is more powerful, but requires more computational resources to manipulate.
Conclusion and Future Work
These are the first in a series of planned papers to illustrate the power of TensorNetwork in real-world applications. In our next paper we will use TensorNetwork to classify images in the MNIST and Fashion-MNIST datasets. Future plans include time series analysis on the ML side, and quantum circuit simulation on the physics side. With the open source community, we are also always adding new features to TensorNetwork itself. We hope that TensorNetwork will become a valuable tool for physicists and machine learning practitioners.

Acknowledgements
The TensorNetwork library was developed by Chase Roberts, Adam Zalcman, and Bruce Fontaine of Google AI; Ashley Milsted, Martin Ganahl, and Guifre Vidal of the Perimeter Institute; and Jack Hidary and Stefan Leichenauer of X. We’d also like to thank Stavros Efthymiou at X for valuable contributions.

Source: Google AI Blog


Coral updates: Project tutorials, a downloadable compiler, and a new distributor

Posted by Vikram Tank (Product Manager), Coral Team

coral hardware

We’re committed to evolving Coral to make it even easier to build systems with on-device AI. Our team is constantly working on new product features, and content that helps ML practitioners, engineers, and prototypers create the next generation of hardware.

To improve our toolchain, we're making the Edge TPU Compiler available to users as a downloadable binary. The binary works on Debian-based Linux systems, allowing for better integration into custom workflows. Instructions on downloading and using the binary are on the Coral site.

We’re also adding a new section to the Coral site that showcases example projects you can build with your Coral board. For instance, Teachable Machine is a project that guides you through building a machine that can quickly learn to recognize new objects by re-training a vision classification model directly on your device. Minigo shows you how to create an implementation of AlphaGo Zero and run it on the Coral Dev Board or USB Accelerator.

Our distributor network is growing as well: Arrow will soon sell Coral products.

Updates from Coral: A new compiler and much more

Posted by Vikram Tank (Product Manager), Coral Team

Coral has been public for about a month now, and we’ve heard some great feedback about our products. As we evolve the Coral platform, we’re making our products easier to use and exposing more powerful tools for building devices with on-device AI.

Today, we're updating the Edge TPU model compiler to remove the restrictions around specific architectures, allowing you to submit any model architecture that you want. This greatly increases the variety of models that you can run on the Coral platform. Just be sure to review the TensorFlow ops supported on Edge TPU and model design requirements to take full advantage of the Edge TPU at runtime.

We're also releasing a new version of Mendel OS (3.0 Chef) for the Dev Board with a new board management tool called Mendel Development Tool (MDT).

To help with the developer workflow, our new C++ API works with the TensorFlow Lite C++ API so you can execute inferences on an Edge TPU. In addition, both the Python and C++ APIs now allow you to run multiple models in parallel, using multiple Edge TPU devices.

In addition to these updates, we’re adding new capabilities to Coral with the release of the Environmental Sensor Board. It’s an accessory board for the Coral Dev Platform (and Raspberry Pi) that brings sensor input to your models. It has integrated light, temperature, humidity, and barometric sensors, and the ability to add more sensors via it's four Grove connectors. The secure element on-board also allows for easy communication with the Google Cloud IOT Core.

The team has also been working with partners to help them evaluate whether Coral is the right fit for their products. We’re excited that Oivi has chosen us to be the base platform of their new handheld AI-camera. This product will help prevent blindness among diabetes patients by providing early, automated detection of diabetic retinopathy. Anders Eikenes, CEO of Oivi, says “Oivi is dedicated towards providing patient-centric eye care for everyone - including emerging markets. We were honoured to be selected by Google to participate in their Coral alpha program, and are looking forward to our continued cooperation. The Coral platform gives us the ability to run our screening ML models inside a handheld device; greatly expanding the access and ease of diabetic retinopathy screening.”

Finally, we’re expanding our distributor network to make it easier to get Coral boards into your hands around the world. This month, Seeed and NXP will begin to sell Coral products, in addition to Mouser.

We're excited to keep evolving the Coral platform, please keep sending us feedback at coral-support@google.com.

You can see the full release notes on Coral site.

RNN-Based Handwriting Recognition in Gboard



In 2015 we launched Google Handwriting Input, which enabled users to handwrite text on their Android mobile device as an additional input method for any Android app. In our initial launch, we managed to support 82 languages from French to Gaelic, Chinese to Malayalam. In order to provide a more seamless user experience and remove the need for switching input methods, last year we added support for handwriting recognition in more than 100 languages to Gboard for Android, Google's keyboard for mobile devices.

Since then, progress in machine learning has enabled new model architectures and training methodologies, allowing us to revise our initial approach (which relied on hand-designed heuristics to cut the handwritten input into single characters) and instead build a single machine learning model that operates on the whole input and reduces error rates substantially compared to the old version. We launched those new models for all latin-script based languages in Gboard at the beginning of the year, and have published the paper "Fast Multi-language LSTM-based Online Handwriting Recognition" that explains in more detail the research behind this release. In this post, we give a high-level overview of that work.

Touch Points, Bézier Curves and Recurrent Neural Networks
The starting point for any online handwriting recognizer are the touch points. The drawn input is represented as a sequence of strokes and each of those strokes in turn is a sequence of points each with a timestamp attached. Since Gboard is used on a wide variety of devices and screen resolutions our first step is to normalize the touch-point coordinates. Then, in order to capture the shape of the data accurately, we convert the sequence of points into a sequence of cubic Bézier curves to use as inputs to a recurrent neural network (RNN) that is trained to accurately identify the character being written (more on that step below). While Bézier curves have a long tradition of use in handwriting recognition, using them as inputs is novel, and allows us to provide a consistent representation of the input across devices with different sampling rates and accuracies. This approach differs significantly from our previous models which used a so-called segment-and-decode approach, which involved creating several hypotheses of how to decompose the strokes into characters (segment) and then finding the most likely sequence of characters from this decomposition (decode).

Another benefit of this method is that the sequence of Bézier curves is more compact than the underlying sequence of input points, which makes it easier for the model to pick up temporal dependencies along the input — Each curve is represented by a polynomial defined by start and end-points as well as two additional control points, determining the shape of the curve. We use an iterative procedure which minimizes the squared distances (in x, y and time) between the normalized input coordinates and the curve in order to find a sequence of cubic Bézier curves that represent the input accurately. The figure below shows an example of the curve fitting process. The handwritten user-input can be seen in black. It consists of 186 touch points and is clearly meant to be the word go. In yellow, blue, pink and green we see its representation through a sequence of four cubic Bézier curves for the letter g (with their two control points each), and correspondingly orange, turquoise and white represent the three curves interpolating the letter o.

Character Decoding
The sequence of curves represents the input, but we still need to translate the sequence of input curves to the actual written characters. For that we use a multi-layer RNN to process the sequence of curves and produce an output decoding matrix with a probability distribution over all possible letters for each input curve, denoting what letter is being written as part of that curve.

We experimented with multiple types of RNNs, and finally settled on using a bidirectional version of quasi-recurrent neural networks (QRNN). QRNNs alternate between convolutional and recurrent layers, giving it the theoretical potential for efficient parallelization, and provide a good predictive performance while keeping the number of weights comparably small. The number of weights is directly related to the size of the model that needs to be downloaded, so the smaller the better.

In order to "decode" the curves, the recurrent neural network produces a matrix, where each column corresponds to one input curve, and each row corresponds to a letter in the alphabet. The column for a specific curve can be seen as a probability distribution over all the letters of the alphabet. However, each letter can consist of multiple curves (the g and o above, for instance, consist of four and three curves, respectively). This mismatch between the length of the output sequence from the recurrent neural network (which always matches the number of bezier curves) and the actual number of characters the input is supposed to represent is addressed by adding a special blank symbol to indicate no output for a particular curve, as in the Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC) algorithm. We use a Finite State Machine Decoder to combine the outputs of the Neural Network with a character-based language model encoded as a weighted finite-state acceptor. Character sequences that are common in a language (such as "sch" in German) receive bonuses and are more likely to be output, whereas uncommon sequences are penalized. The process is visualized below.

The sequence of touch points (color-coded by the curve segments as in the previous figure) is converted to a much shorter sequence of Bezier coefficients (seven, in our example), each of which corresponds to a single curve. The QRNN-based recognizer converts the sequence of curves into a sequence of character probabilities of the same length, shown in the decoder matrix with the rows corresponding to the letters "a" to "z" and the blank symbol, where the brightness of an entry corresponds to its relative probability. Going through the decoder matrix left to right, we see mostly blanks, and bright points for the characters "g" and "o", resulting in the text output "go".

Despite being significantly simpler, our new character recognition models not only make 20%-40% fewer mistakes than the old ones, they are also much faster. However, all this still needs to be performed on-device!

Making it Work, On-device
In order to provide the best user-experience, accurate recognition models are not enough — they also need to be fast. To achieve the lowest latency possible in Gboard, we convert our recognition models (trained in TensorFlow) to TensorFlow Lite models. This involves quantizing all our weights during model training such that instead of using four bytes per weight we only use one, which leads to smaller models as well as lower inference times. Moreover, TensorFlow Lite allows us to reduce the APK size compared to using a full TensorFlow implementation, because it is optimized for small binary size by only including the parts which are required for inference.

More to Come
We will continue to push the envelope beyond improving the latin-script language recognizers. The Handwriting Team is already hard at work launching new models for all our supported handwriting languages in Gboard.

Acknowledgements
We would like to thank everybody who contributed to improving the handwriting experience in Gboard. In particular, Jatin Matani from the Gboard team, David Rybach from the Speech & Language Algorithms Team, Prabhu Kaliamoorthi‎ from the Expander Team, Pete Warden from the TensorFlow Lite team, as well as Henry Rowley‎, Li-Lun Wang‎, Mircea Trăichioiu‎, Philippe Gervais, and Thomas Deselaers from the Handwriting Team.

Source: Google AI Blog