Tag Archives: Kaggle

Advancing Instance-Level Recognition Research

Instance-level recognition (ILR) is the computer vision task of recognizing a specific instance of an object, rather than simply the category to which it belongs. For example, instead of labeling an image as “post-impressionist painting”, we’re interested in instance-level labels like “Starry Night Over the Rhone by Vincent van Gogh”, or “Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile, Paris, France”, instead of simply “arch”. Instance-level recognition problems exist in many domains, like landmarks, artwork, products, or logos, and have applications in visual search apps, personal photo organization, shopping and more. Over the past several years, Google has been contributing to research on ILR with the Google Landmarks Dataset and Google Landmarks Dataset v2 (GLDv2), and novel models such as DELF and Detect-to-Retrieve.

Three types of image recognition problems, with different levels of label granularity (basic, fine-grained, instance-level), for objects from the artwork, landmark and product domains. In our work, we focus on instance-level recognition.

Today, we highlight some results from the Instance-Level Recognition Workshop at ECCV’20. The workshop brought together experts and enthusiasts in this area, with many fruitful discussions, some of which included our ECCV’20 paper “DEep Local and Global features” (DELG), a state-of-the-art image feature model for instance-level recognition, and a supporting open-source codebase for DELG and other related ILR techniques. Also presented were two new landmark challenges (on recognition and retrieval tasks) based on GLDv2, and future ILR challenges that extend to other domains: artwork recognition and product retrieval. The long-term goal of the workshop and challenges is to foster advancements in the field of ILR and push forward the state of the art by unifying research workstreams from different domains, which so far have mostly been tackled as separate problems.

DELG: DEep Local and Global Features
Effective image representations are the key components required to solve instance-level recognition problems. Often, two types of representations are necessary: global and local image features. A global feature summarizes the entire contents of an image, leading to a compact representation but discarding information about spatial arrangement of visual elements that may be characteristic of unique examples. Local features, on the other hand, comprise descriptors and geometry information about specific image regions; they are especially useful to match images depicting the same objects.

Currently, most systems that rely on both of these types of features need to separately adopt each of them using different models, which leads to redundant computations and lowers overall efficiency. To address this, we proposed DELG, a unified model for local and global image features.

The DELG model leverages a fully-convolutional neural network with two different heads: one for global features and the other for local features. Global features are obtained using pooled feature maps of deep network layers, which in effect summarize the salient features of the input images making the model more robust to subtle changes in input. The local feature branch leverages intermediate feature maps to detect salient image regions, with the help of an attention module, and to produce descriptors that represent associated localized contents in a discriminative manner.

Our proposed DELG model (left). Global features can be used in the first stage of a retrieval-based system, to efficiently select the most similar images (bottom). Local features can then be employed to re-rank top results (top, right), increasing the precision of the system.

This novel design allows for efficient inference since it enables extraction of global and local features within a single model. For the first time, we demonstrated that such a unified model can be trained end-to-end and deliver state-of-the-art results for instance-level recognition tasks. When compared to previous global features, this method outperforms other approaches by up to 7.5% mean average precision; and for the local feature re-ranking stage, DELG-based results are up to 7% better than previous work. Overall, DELG achieves 61.2% average precision on the recognition task of GLDv2, which outperforms all except two methods of the 2019 challenge. Note that all top methods from that challenge used complex model ensembles, while our results use only a single model.

Tensorflow 2 Open-Source Codebase
To foster research reproducibility, we are also releasing a revamped open-source codebase that includes DELG and other techniques relevant to instance-level recognition, such as DELF and Detect-to-Retrieve. Our code adopts the latest Tensorflow 2 releases, and makes available reference implementations for model training & inference, besides image retrieval and matching functionalities. We invite the community to use and contribute to this codebase in order to develop strong foundations for research in the ILR field.

New Challenges for Instance Level Recognition
Focused on the landmarks domain, the Google Landmarks Dataset v2 (GLDv2) is the largest available dataset for instance-level recognition, with 5 million images spanning 200 thousand categories. By training landmark retrieval models on this dataset, we have demonstrated improvements of up to 6% mean average precision, compared to models trained on earlier datasets. We have also recently launched a new browser interface for visually exploring the GLDv2 dataset.

This year, we also launched two new challenges within the landmark domain, one focusing on recognition and the other on retrieval. These competitions feature newly-collected test sets, and a new evaluation methodology: instead of uploading a CSV file with pre-computed predictions, participants have to submit models and code that are run on Kaggle servers, to compute predictions that are then scored and ranked. The compute restrictions of this environment put an emphasis on efficient and practical solutions.

The challenges attracted over 1,200 teams, a 3x increase over last year, and participants achieved significant improvements over our strong DELG baselines. On the recognition task, the highest scoring submission achieved a relative increase of 43% average precision score and on the retrieval task, the winning team achieved a 59% relative improvement of the mean average precision score. This latter result was achieved via a combination of more effective neural networks, pooling methods and training protocols (see more details on the Kaggle competition site).

In addition to the landmark recognition and retrieval challenges, our academic and industrial collaborators discussed their progress on developing benchmarks and competitions in other domains. A large-scale research benchmark for artwork recognition is under construction, leveraging The Met’s Open Access image collection, and with a new test set consisting of guest photos exhibiting various photometric and geometric variations. Similarly, a new large-scale product retrieval competition will capture various challenging aspects, including a very large number of products, a long-tailed class distribution and variations in object appearance and context. More information on the ILR workshop, including slides and video recordings, is available on its website.

With this research, open source code, data and challenges, we hope to spur progress in instance-level recognition and enable researchers and machine learning enthusiasts from different communities to develop approaches that generalize across different domains.

The main Google contributors of this project are André Araujo, Cam Askew, Bingyi Cao, Jack Sim and Tobias Weyand. We’d like to thank the co-organizers of the ILR workshop Ondrej Chum, Torsten Sattler, Giorgos Tolias (Czech Technical University), Bohyung Han (Seoul National University), Guangxing Han (Columbia University), Xu Zhang (Amazon), collaborators on the artworks dataset Nanne van Noord, Sarah Ibrahimi (University of Amsterdam), Noa Garcia (Osaka University), as well as our collaborators from the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Jennie Choi, Maria Kessler and Spencer Kiser. For the open-source Tensorflow codebase, we’d like to thank the help of recent contributors: Dan Anghel, Barbara Fusinska, Arun Mukundan, Yuewei Na and Jaeyoun Kim. We are grateful to Will Cukierski, Phil Culliton, Maggie Demkin for their support with the landmarks Kaggle competitions. Also we’d like to thank Ralph Keller and Boris Bluntschli for their help with data collection.

Source: Google AI Blog

An End-to-End AutoML Solution for Tabular Data at KaggleDays

Machine learning (ML) for tabular data (e.g. spreadsheet data) is one of the most active research areas in both ML research and business applications. Solutions to tabular data problems, such as fraud detection and inventory prediction, are critical for many business sectors, including retail, supply chain, finance, manufacturing, marketing and others. Current ML-based solutions to these problems can be achieved by those with significant ML expertise, including manual feature engineering and hyper-parameter tuning, to create a good model. However, the lack of broad availability of these skills limits the efficiency of business improvements through ML.

Google’s AutoML efforts aim to make ML more scalable and accelerate both research and industry applications. Our initial efforts of neural architecture search have enabled breakthroughs in computer vision with NasNet, and evolutionary methods such as AmoebaNet and hardware-aware mobile vision architecture MNasNet further show the benefit of these learning-to-learn methods. Recently, we applied a learning-based approach to tabular data, creating a scalable end-to-end AutoML solution that meets three key criteria:
  • Full automation: Data and computation resources are the only inputs, while a servable TensorFlow model is the output. The whole process requires no human intervention.
  • Extensive coverage: The solution is applicable to the majority of arbitrary tasks in the tabular data domain.
  • High quality: Models generated by AutoML has comparable quality to models manually crafted by top ML experts.
To benchmark our solution, we entered our algorithm in the KaggleDays SF Hackathon, an 8.5 hour competition of 74 teams with up to 3 members per team, as part of the KaggleDays event. The first time that AutoML has competed against Kaggle participants, the competition involved predicting manufacturing defects given information about the material properties and testing results for batches of automotive parts. Despite competing against participants thats were at the Kaggle progression system Master level, including many who were at the GrandMaster level, our team (“Google AutoML”) led for most of the day and ended up finishing second place by a narrow margin, as seen in the final leaderboard.

Our team’s AutoML solution was a multistage TensorFlow pipeline. The first stage is responsible for automatic feature engineering, architecture search, and hyperparameter tuning through search. The promising models from the first stage are fed into the second stage, where cross validation and bootstrap aggregating are applied for better model selection. The best models from the second stage are then combined in the final model.
The workflow for the “Google AutoML” team was quite different from that of other Kaggle competitors. While they were busy with analyzing data and experimenting with various feature engineering ideas, our team spent most of time monitoring jobs and and waiting for them to finish. Our solution for second place on the final leaderboard required 1 hour on 2500 CPUs to finish end-to-end.

After the competition, Kaggle published a public kernel to investigate winning solutions and found that augmenting the top hand-designed models with AutoML models, such as ours, could be a useful way for ML experts to create even better performing systems. As can be seen in the plot below, AutoML has the potential to enhance the efforts of human developers and address a broad range of ML problems.
Potential model quality improvement on final leaderboard if AutoML models were merged with other Kagglers’ models. “Erkut & Mark, Google AutoML”, includes the top winner “Erkut & Mark” and the second place “Google AutoML” models. Erkut Aykutlug and Mark Peng used XGBoost with creative feature engineering whereas AutoML uses both neural network and gradient boosting tree (TFBT) with automatic feature engineering and hyperparameter tuning.
Google Cloud AutoML Tables
The solution we presented at the competitions is the main algorithm in Google Cloud AutoML Tables, which was recently launched (beta) at Google Cloud Next ‘19. The AutoML Tables implementation regularly performs well in benchmark tests against Kaggle competitions as shown in the plot below, demonstrating state-of-the-art performance across the industry.
Third party benchmark of AutoML Tables on multiple Kaggle competitions
We are excited about the potential application of AutoML methods across a wide range of real business problems. Customers have already been leveraging their tabular enterprise data to tackle mission-critical tasks like supply chain management and lead conversion optimization using AutoML Tables, and we are excited to be providing our state-of-the-art models to solve tabular data problems.

This project was only possible thanks to Google Brain team members Ming Chen, Da Huang, Yifeng Lu, Quoc V. Le and Vishy Tirumalashetty. We also thank Dawei Jia, Chenyu Zhao and Tin-yun Ho from the Cloud AutoML Tables team for great infrastructure and product landing collaboration. Thanks to Walter Reade, Julia Elliott and Kaggle for organizing such an engaging competition.

Source: Google AI Blog

Welcome Kaggle to Google Cloud

Today, I’m excited to announce that Kaggle will be joining Google Cloud. Founded in 2010, Kaggle is home to the world's largest community of data scientists and machine learning enthusiasts. More than 800,000 data experts use Kaggle to explore, analyze and understand the latest updates in machine learning and data analytics. Kaggle is the best place to search and analyze public datasets, build machine learning models and grow your data science expertise.

During my keynote talk at Next ‘17, I emphasized the importance of democratizing AI. We must lower the barriers of entry to AI and make it available to the largest community of developers, users and enterprises, so they can apply it to their own unique needs. With Kaggle joining the Google Cloud team, we can accelerate this mission.

Kaggle and Google Cloud will continue to support machine learning training and deployment services, while offering the community the ability to store and query large datasets.

I’m thrilled to welcome Kaggle to the team. Kaggle and Google Cloud will foster a thriving community of machine learning developers and data scientists, giving them direct access to the most advanced cloud machine learning environment.

I can’t wait to see what machine learning problems you solve and the breakthroughs you achieve.

Posted by, Fei-Fei Li, Chief Scientist, Google Cloud AI and Machine Learning