Tag Archives: Android app developers

15 Things to know for Android developers at Google I/O

Posted by Matthew McCullough, Vice President, Product Management, Android Developer  

AI is unlocking experiences that were not even possible a few years ago, and we’ve been hard at work reimaging Android with AI at the core, to help enable you to build a whole new class of apps. At this year’s Google I/O, we’re covering how new tools like Gemini can power building the next generations of apps on Android. Plus, we showcased a range of updates to our tools and services grounded in productivity, helping you make it faster and easier to build excellent experiences across form factors. Let’s dive in!

Powering the next generation of Apps with AI

#1: AI in your tools, with Gemini in Android Studio

Gemini in Android Studio (formerly Studio Bot) is your coding companion for Android development, and thanks to your feedback since its preview at last year’s Google I/O, we’ve evolved our models, expanded to over 200 countries and territories, and brought it into the Gemini family of products. Earlier today, we previewed a number of new features coming soon, like Code suggestions, App Quality Insights that leverage Gemini, and a preview of the multi-modal inputs that are coming using Gemini 1.5 Pro. You can read more about the updates here, and make sure to check out What’s new in Android development tools.

#2: Building with Generative AI

Android provides the solution you need to build Generative AI apps. You can use our most capable models over the Cloud with the Gemini API in Google AI or Vertex AI for Firebase directly in your Android apps. For on-device, Gemini Nano is our most efficient model. We’re working closely with a few early adopters such as Patreon, Grammarly, and Adobe to ensure we’re creating the best APIs that unlock the most innovative experiences. For example, Adobe is experimenting with Gemini Nano to enhance the on-device experience of Acrobat AI Assistant, a tool that allows their users to summarize and interact with documents. Be sure to check out the Build your own generative AI powered Android app, Android on-device gen AI under the hood, and the What’s New in Android sessions to learn more!

Moving image of Gemini Nano operating in Adobe

Excellent apps, across devices

#3: Think adaptive: apps on phones, foldables, tablets and more

Build and design apps that adapt beyond the phone, with the new Compose adaptive layout libraries built with Material guidance in beta. Add rich stylus and keyboard support to increase user productivity. Check out three of our key Android adaptive sessions at Google I/O: Designing adaptive apps, Building adaptive Android apps, and Increase user productivity with large screens and accessories.

Moving image of Gemini Nano operating in Adobe

#4: Enhance homescreens with Widgets and Jetpack Glance

Jetpack Glance 1.1 is now available in release candidate and lets you build high quality widgets using your Compose skills. Check out our new canonical layouts, design guidance and figma updates to the Android UI kit. To learn more check out our Improve the user experience of your Android app workshop and Build Android widgets with Jetpack Glance technical session.

#5-9: come back here tomorrow and Thursday!

We’ll continue to share more updates for Android Developers throughout Google I/O, so check back here tomorrow!

Developer Productivity

#10: Use Kotlin Multiplatform for sharing business logic

Kotlin Multiplatform (KMP) enables sharing Kotlin code across different platforms and several of our Jetpack libraries, like DataStore and Room, have already been migrated to take advantage of KMP. We use Kotlin Multiplatform within Google and recommend using KMP for sharing business logic between platforms. Learn more about it here.

#11: Compose: Shared Elements, performance improvements and more

The upcoming Compose June ‘24 release is packed with the features you’ve been asking for! Shared element transitions, lazy list item reordering animations, strong skipping mode, performance improvements, a new lazy flow layout and more. Read more about it in our blog.

#12: Android Studio: the latest preview, with Gemini and more

Android Studio Koala 🐨Feature Drop (2024.1.2) available today in the canary channel, builds on top of IntelliJ 2024.1 and adds new innovative features unlocked by Gemini, such as insights for crashes in App Quality Insights, code transformations and a Gemini API starter template to get you quickly started with Gemini. Additionally, new features such as USB speed detection, shortcut UI to control device settings, a new way to sign into Google services, updated and speedier UI for profilers with a new task centric approach and a deep integration with the Google Play SDK index are intended to make the development process extremely productive. Read more here.

And the latest from the world of Mobile

#13: Grow your business with the latest Google Play updates

Discover new ways to attract and engage users with enhanced custom store listings. Optimize revenue with expanded payment options. Reinforce trust through secure, high-quality experiences made easier with our latest SDK Console improvements. Learn about these updates and more, including our new vertical approach, in our blog.

#14: Simplify app compliance with Checks

Streamline your app's privacy compliance with Checks, Google's AI-powered compliance solution! Checks empowers developers to swiftly identify, address, resolve privacy issues, and enables you to launch apps faster and with confidence. Harness the power of automation with Checks' intelligent reports, saving you valuable time and resources. Get started now at checks.google.com.

#15: And of course, Android 15

…but for that, you’ll have to stay tuned tomorrow, when we’ve got a bit more up our sleeve!

Precise Improvements: How TikTok Enhanced its Video Social Experience on Android

Posted by The Android Developer Relations team


TikTok serves a wide range of user groups. With users around the world, it’s inevitable that some of them experience network issues such as slow, intermittent, or expensive connectivity. Other users are using entry level devices with limited memory and storage. Ensuring an excellent app experience in all these scenarios is paramount. TikTok's team was able to significantly improve their overall performance by following Android’s performance guidance, and employing their deep understanding of development tools such as Android Gradle Plugin and Jetpack libraries. If you want to learn how the TikTok team improved their app experience to achieve better business performance, please read our business article here.


TikTok is one of the most popular community-driven entertainment platforms with 1 billion people across the globe publishing and browsing video content every day.

A diverse user base naturally means diverse network bandwidth conditions and devices with different screen sizes, available memory and processing power. All users want a smooth, responsive app experience, no matter which device they use. If the app is slow to load, or playback gets stuck, users will feel frustrated and might abandon the app altogether. To avoid issues like these, the TikTok team continuously tracks the overall app performance through ongoing data monitoring, peer benchmarks, and user surveys.

TikTok is constantly introducing new features. But a rapid increase in functionality sometimes leads to an upsurge in technical requirements. The engineering team identified three reasons that slowed down the app : janky frames, video playback lag, and network issues. To solve these issues, the TikTok team looked to Android tools to start their app improvement journey.

From Discovery to Solution

Reducing app startup time, a smoother user experience with reduced jank and better video playback experience were three major goals that the team prioritized. They also discussed how to measure the effects of performance optimization to prevent the occurrence of regression.

1. Faster startup: refactor startup framework

App startup time is one of the metrics in Android Vitals. Making sure the app startup time is no longer than the Android Vital’s recommendation is the best way to ensure the app loads and starts responding to user activity as quickly as possible. The App Startup library is an Android Jetpack library to help developers initialize app components simply and efficiently.

The team studied the App Startup library in depth and refactored the app's startup framework to achieve on-demand loading and meticulous scheduling of components. In order to further reduce the execution time of creating Views on the main thread, the team even used a background thread to load View components asynchronously, thus improving the overall speed of app startup.

TikTok used Simpleperf to analyze the code execution time, and Android Studio's Profiler to monitor the usage of resources such as memory, CPU, and network to optimize I/O, threads, and resource locks.

2. Smoother user interface

To ensure a smoother user interface, the team needed to tackle two challenges: 1) simplify the View hierarchy, so that the app only renders what is necessary on screen, and 2) reduce the number of task executions in each frame so that the app can have a steady frame rate.

The TikTok team used the Layout Inspector in Android Studio to pinpoint the unnecessary layout contents. The layout boundaries of each View are clearly visible in the inspector, so the team can easily simplify the View hierarchy of the interface and reduce excessive and unnecessary content drawing.

In many cases, TikTok used doFrame() to perform frame-by-frame tasks. Trying to fit too much work in a single frame will inevitably cause a jank. TikTok's approach was to use allocation algorithms to distribute tasks into different frames to ensure that the application has a steady frame rate.

3. Better video playback experience: reuse resources

TikTok users can create audio and video content in various ways, and different codecs are used to play different types of content. Android provides the MediaCodec class to help access the underlying codec. To further improve the speed of video playback, it is good practice to provide different media player instances for different codecs. The TikTok team created a pool of media player instances throughout the application to neatly provide for various media contents. They even run each media player instance in different threads to minimize interference between one another

Network connection speed is another contributor to video lag . The team tested different solutions, including optimizing connections and reusing sockets, and developed algorithms to dynamically adjust buffer length when streaming content to reduce lag during playback.

They also used on-device video super-resolution to generate high-resolution frames based on low-resolution video content, further improving the quality of video playback without increasing network pressure.

Preloading (loading the next video ahead of time) and pre-rendering (rendering the first frame of the video ahead of time) are critical components to ensure that users have a smooth experience when playing multiple videos in succession. TikTok drew a Surface in advance only adding it into the screen when it is actually needed, to reduce the pressure of drawing it on the spot.

4. Avoid regressions

The team continues to maintain a detailed understanding of performance and works to fine-tune elements when necessary. Luckily, Android has tools in place for this exact purpose, like Systrace to capture traces so developers can export system activities (including CPU scheduling, disk activities, and app threads) for detailed analysis. The team also relies heavily on tools like Perfetto and Android Studio CPU profiler to track the execution time of various events, especially for I/O and class loading.

Better Performance, Better Experience

TikTok creatively leveraged the Android toolchain to track, quantify, and optimize their app’s performance for its business priorities, resulting in improved user experience and an increase in user satisfaction

The app startup time was reduced by 45%, and the smoothness (the chance of the frame rate being lower than the target value) has been optimized by 49%. When playing a video, the first frame of the video appeared 41% faster, and the chance of video lag was reduced by 27%.

Users are now more willing to use TikTok: active days per user in 30 days increased by 1%as did the average of session duration. User surveys and TikTok’s rating in Google Play also show a significant increase in user satisfaction.

The Next Stage for TikTok

By constantly optimizing app performance and adapting to the latest Android 13 platform, TikTok has created a more seamless app experience, encouraging more users to discover, create, and share the content they love.

With more than 250 million active large-screen Android devices globally, the team has also been focusing on large-screen devices, including foldable devices. By adopting the app to large screens, the team has brought a more immersive experience to TikTok users.

To learn more about how TikTok optimized its Android app to improve user experience and business performance, read the article here.

Get Guidance on Performance

To learn how you can get started to inspect, improve and monitor your app's performance visit our developer guide. The fastest way to improve your app's launch speed is by adding a baseline profile to your next release.