Tag Archives: CVPR

SpineNet: A Novel Architecture for Object Detection Discovered with Neural Architecture Search



Convolutional neural networks created for image tasks typically encode an input image into a sequence of intermediate features that capture the semantics of an image (from local to global), where each subsequent layer has a lower spatial dimension. However, this scale-decreased model may not be able to deliver strong features for multi-scale visual recognition tasks where recognition and localization are both important (e.g., object detection and segmentation). Several works including FPN and DeepLabv3+ propose multi-scale encoder-decoder architectures to address this issue, where a scale-decreased network (e.g., a ResNet) is taken as the encoder (commonly referred to as a backbone model). A decoder network is then applied to the backbone to recover the spatial information.

While this architecture has yielded improved success for image recognition and localization tasks, it still relies on a scale-decreased backbone that throws away spatial information by down-sampling, which the decoder then must attempt to recover. What if one were to design an alternate backbone model that avoids this loss of spatial information, and is thus inherently well-suited for simultaneous image recognition and localization?

In our recent CVPR 2020 paper “SpineNet: Learning Scale-Permuted Backbone for Recognition and Localization”, we propose a meta architecture called a scale-permuted model that enables two major improvements on backbone architecture design. First, the spatial resolution of intermediate feature maps should be able to increase or decrease anytime so that the model can retain spatial information as it grows deeper. Second, the connections between feature maps should be able to go across feature scales to facilitate multi-scale feature fusion. We then use neural architecture search (NAS) with a novel search space design that includes these features to discover an effective scale-permuted model. We demonstrate that this model is successful in multi-scale visual recognition tasks, outperforming networks with standard, scale-reduced backbones. To facilitate continued work in this space, we have open sourced the SpineNet code to the Tensorflow TPU GitHub repository in Tensorflow 1 and TensorFlow Model Garden GitHub repository in Tensorflow 2.
A scale-decreased backbone is shown on the left and a scale-permuted backbone is shown on the right. Each rectangle represents a building block. Colors and shapes represent different spatial resolutions and feature dimensions. Arrows represent connections among building blocks.
Design of SpineNet Architecture
In order to efficiently design the architecture for SpineNet, and avoid a time-intensive manual search of what is optimal, we leverage NAS to determine an optimal architecture. The backbone model is learned on the object detection task using the COCO dataset, which requires simultaneous recognition and localization. During architecture search, we learn three things:
  • Scale permutations: The orderings of network building blocks are important because each block can only be built from those that already exist (i.e., with a “lower ordering”). We define the search space of scale permutations by rearranging intermediate and output blocks, respectively.
  • Cross-scale connections: We define two input connections for each block in the search space. The parent blocks can be any block with a lower ordering or a block from the stem network.
  • Block adjustments (optional): We allow the block to adjust its scale level and type.
The architecture search process from a scale-decreased backbone to a scale-permuted backbone.
Taking the ResNet-50 backbone as the seed for the NAS search, we first learn scale-permutation and cross-scale connections. All candidate models in the search space have roughly the same computation as ResNet-50 since we just permute the ordering of feature blocks to obtain candidate models. The learned scale-permuted model outperforms ResNet-50-FPN by +2.9% average precision (AP) in the object detection task. The efficiency can be further improved (-10% FLOPs) by adding search options to adjust scale and type (e.g., residual block or bottleneck block, used in the ResNet model family) of each candidate feature block.

We name the learned 49-layer scale-permuted backbone architecture SpineNet-49. SpineNet-49 can be further scaled up to SpineNet-96/143/190 by repeating blocks two, three, or four times and increasing the feature dimension. An architecture comparison between ResNet-50-FPN and the final SpineNet-49 is shown below.
The architecture comparison between a ResNet backbone (left) and the SpineNet backbone (right) derived from it using NAS.
Performance
We demonstrate the performance of SpineNet models through comparison with ResNet-FPN. Using similar building blocks, SpineNet models outperform their ResNet-FPN counterparts by ~3% AP at various scales while using 10-20% fewer FLOPs. In particular, our largest model, SpineNet-190, achieves 52.1% AP on COCO for a single model without multi-scale testing during inference, significantly outperforming prior detectors. SpineNet also transfers to classification tasks, achieving 5% top-1 accuracy improvement on the challenging iNaturalist fine-grained dataset.
Performance comparisons of SpineNet models and ResNet-FPN models adopting the RetinaNet detection framework on COCO bounding box detection.
Performance comparisons of SpineNet models and ResNet models on ImageNet classification and iNaturalist fine-grained image classification.
Conclusion
In this work, we identify that the conventional scale-decreased model, even with a decoder network, is not effective for simultaneous recognition and localization. We propose the scale-permuted model, a new meta-architecture, to address the issue. To prove the effectiveness of scale-permuted models, we learn SpineNet by Neural Architecture Search in object detection and demonstrate it can be used directly in image classification. In the future, we hope the scale-permuted model will become the meta-architecture design of backbones across many visual tasks beyond detection and classification.

Acknowledgements
Special thanks to the co-authors of the paper: Tsung-Yi Lin, Pengchong Jin, Golnaz Ghiasi, Mingxing Tan, Yin Cui, Quoc V. Le, and Xiaodan Song. We also would like to acknowledge Yeqing Li, Youlong Cheng, Jing Li, Jianwei Xie, Russell Power, Hongkun Yu, Chad Richards, Liang-Chieh Chen, Anelia Angelova, and the larger Google Brain Team for their help.

Source: Google AI Blog


Leveraging Temporal Context for Object Detection



Ecological monitoring helps researchers to understand the dynamics of global ecosystems, quantify biodiversity, and measure the effects of climate change and human activity, including the efficacy of conservation and remediation efforts. In order to monitor effectively, ecologists need high-quality data, often expending significant efforts to place monitoring sensors, such as static cameras, in the field. While it is increasingly cost effective to build and operate networks of such sensors, the manual data analysis of global biodiversity data remains a bottleneck to accurate, global, real-time ecological monitoring. While there are ways to automate this analysis via machine learning, the data from static cameras, widely used to monitor the world around us for purposes ranging from mountain pass road conditions to ecosystem phenology, still pose a strong challenge for traditional computer vision systems — due to power and storage constraints, sampling frequencies are low, often no faster than one frame per second, and sometimes are irregular due to the use of a motion trigger.

In order to perform well in this setting, computer vision models must be robust to objects of interest that are often off-center, out of focus, poorly lit, or at a variety of scales. In addition, a static camera will always take images of the same scene unless it is moved, which causes the data from any one camera to be highly repetitive. Without sufficient data variability, machine learning models may learn to focus on correlations in the background, leading to poor generalization to novel deployments. The machine learning and ecological communities have been working together through venues like LILA BC and Wildlife Insights to curate expert-labeled training data from many research groups, each of which may operate anywhere from one to hundreds of camera traps, in order to increase data variability. This process of data collection and annotation is slow, and is confounded by the need to have diverse, representative data across geographic regions and taxonomic groups.
What’s in this image? Objects in images from static cameras can be very challenging to detect and categorize. Here, a foggy morning has made it very difficult to see a herd of wildebeest walking along the crest of a hill. [Image from Snapshot Serengeti]
In Context R-CNN: Long Term Temporal Context for Per-Camera Object Detection, we present a complementary approach that increases global scalability by improving generalization to novel camera deployments algorithmically. This new object detection architecture leverages contextual clues across time for each camera deployment in a network, improving recognition of objects in novel camera deployments without relying on additional training data from a large number of cameras. Echoing the approach a person might use when faced with challenging images, Context R-CNN leverages up to a month’s worth of images from the same camera for context to determine what objects might be present and identify them. Using this method, the model outperforms a single-frame Faster R-CNN baseline by significant margins across multiple domains, including wildlife camera traps. We have open sourced the code and models for this work as part of the TF Object Detection API to make it easy to train and test Context R-CNN models on new static camera datasets.
Here, we can see how additional examples from the same scene help experts determine that the object is an animal and not background. Context such as the shape & size of the object, its attachment to a herd, and habitual grazing at certain times of day help determine that the species is a wildebeest. Useful examples occur throughout the month.
The Context R-CNN Model
Context R-CNN is designed to take advantage of the high degree of correlation within images taken by a static camera to boost performance on challenging data and improve generalization to new camera deployments without additional human data labeling. It is an adaptation of Faster R-CNN, a popular two-stage object detection architecture. To extract context for a camera, we first use a frozen feature extractor to build up a contextual memory bank from images across a large time horizon (up to a month or more). Next, objects are detected in each image using Context R-CNN which aggregates relevant context from the memory bank to help detect objects under challenging conditions (such as the heavy fog obscuring the wildebeests in our previous example). This aggregation is performed using attention, which is robust to the sparse and irregular sampling rates often seen in static monitoring cameras.
High-level architecture diagram, showing how Context R-CNN incorporates long-term context within the Faster R-CNN model architecture.
The first stage of Faster R-CNN proposes potential objects, and the second stage categorizes each proposal as either background or one of the target classes. In Context R-CNN, we take the proposed objects from the first stage of Faster R-CNN, and for each one we use similarity-based attention to determine how relevant each of the features in our memory bank (M) is to the current object, and construct a per-object context feature by taking a relevance-weighted sum over M and adding it back to the original object features. Then each object, now with added contextual information, is finally categorized using the second stage of Faster R-CNN.
Context R-CNN is able to leverage context (spanning up to 1 month) to correctly categorize the challenging wildebeest example we saw above. The green values are the corresponding attention weights for each boxed object.
Compared to a Faster R-CNN baseline (left), Context R-CNN (right) is able to capture challenging objects such as an elephant occluded by a tree, two poorly-lit impala, and a vervet monkey leaving the frame. [Images from Snapshot Serengeti]
Results
We have tested Context R-CNN on Snapshot Serengeti (SS) and Caltech Camera Traps (CCT), both ecological datasets of animal species in camera traps but from highly different geographic regions (Tanzania vs. the Southwestern United States). Improvements over the Faster R-CNN baseline for each dataset can be seen in the table below. Notably, we see a 47.5% relative increase in mean average precision (mAP) on SS, and a 34.3% relative mAP increase on CCT. We also compare Context R-CNN to S3D (a 3D convolution based baseline) and see performance improve from 44.7% mAP to 55.9% mAP (a 25.1% relative increase). Finally, we find that the performance increases as the contextual time horizon increases, from a minute of context to a month.
Comparison to a single frame Faster R-CNN baseline, showing both mean average precision (mAP) and average recall (AR) detection metrics.
Ongoing and Future Work
We are working to implement Context R-CNN within the Wildlife Insights platform, to facilitate large-scale, global ecological monitoring via camera traps. We also host competitions such as the yearly iWildCam species identification competition at the CVPR Fine-Grained Visual Recognition Workshop to help bring these challenges to the attention of the computer vision community. The challenges seen in automatic species identification in static cameras are shared by numerous applications of static cameras outside of the ecological monitoring domain, as well as other static sensors used to monitor biodiversity, such as audio and sonar devices. Our method is general, and we anticipate the per-sensor context approach taken by Context R-CNN would be beneficial for any static sensor.

Acknowledgements
This post reflects the work of the authors as well as the following group of core contributors: Vivek Rathod, Guanhang Wu, Ronny Votel. We are also grateful to Zhichao Lu, David Ross, Tanya Birch and the Wildlife Insights AI team, and Pietro Perona and the Caltech Computational Vision Lab.

Source: Google AI Blog


Leveraging Temporal Context for Object Detection



Ecological monitoring helps researchers to understand the dynamics of global ecosystems, quantify biodiversity, and measure the effects of climate change and human activity, including the efficacy of conservation and remediation efforts. In order to monitor effectively, ecologists need high-quality data, often expending significant efforts to place monitoring sensors, such as static cameras, in the field. While it is increasingly cost effective to build and operate networks of such sensors, the manual data analysis of global biodiversity data remains a bottleneck to accurate, global, real-time ecological monitoring. While there are ways to automate this analysis via machine learning, the data from static cameras, widely used to monitor the world around us for purposes ranging from mountain pass road conditions to ecosystem phenology, still pose a strong challenge for traditional computer vision systems — due to power and storage constraints, sampling frequencies are low, often no faster than one frame per second, and sometimes are irregular due to the use of a motion trigger.

In order to perform well in this setting, computer vision models must be robust to objects of interest that are often off-center, out of focus, poorly lit, or at a variety of scales. In addition, a static camera will always take images of the same scene unless it is moved, which causes the data from any one camera to be highly repetitive. Without sufficient data variability, machine learning models may learn to focus on correlations in the background, leading to poor generalization to novel deployments. The machine learning and ecological communities have been working together through venues like LILA BC and Wildlife Insights to curate expert-labeled training data from many research groups, each of which may operate anywhere from one to hundreds of camera traps, in order to increase data variability. This process of data collection and annotation is slow, and is confounded by the need to have diverse, representative data across geographic regions and taxonomic groups.
What’s in this image? Objects in images from static cameras can be very challenging to detect and categorize. Here, a foggy morning has made it very difficult to see a herd of wildebeest walking along the crest of a hill. [Image from Snapshot Serengeti]
In Context R-CNN: Long Term Temporal Context for Per-Camera Object Detection, we present a complementary approach that increases global scalability by improving generalization to novel camera deployments algorithmically. This new object detection architecture leverages contextual clues across time for each camera deployment in a network, improving recognition of objects in novel camera deployments without relying on additional training data from a large number of cameras. Echoing the approach a person might use when faced with challenging images, Context R-CNN leverages up to a month’s worth of images from the same camera for context to determine what objects might be present and identify them. Using this method, the model outperforms a single-frame Faster R-CNN baseline by significant margins across multiple domains, including wildlife camera traps. We have open sourced the code and models for this work as part of the TF Object Detection API to make it easy to train and test Context R-CNN models on new static camera datasets.
Here, we can see how additional examples from the same scene help experts determine that the object is an animal and not background. Context such as the shape & size of the object, its attachment to a herd, and habitual grazing at certain times of day help determine that the species is a wildebeest. Useful examples occur throughout the month.
The Context R-CNN Model
Context R-CNN is designed to take advantage of the high degree of correlation within images taken by a static camera to boost performance on challenging data and improve generalization to new camera deployments without additional human data labeling. It is an adaptation of Faster R-CNN, a popular two-stage object detection architecture. To extract context for a camera, we first use a frozen feature extractor to build up a contextual memory bank from images across a large time horizon (up to a month or more). Next, objects are detected in each image using Context R-CNN which aggregates relevant context from the memory bank to help detect objects under challenging conditions (such as the heavy fog obscuring the wildebeests in our previous example). This aggregation is performed using attention, which is robust to the sparse and irregular sampling rates often seen in static monitoring cameras.
High-level architecture diagram, showing how Context R-CNN incorporates long-term context within the Faster R-CNN model architecture.
The first stage of Faster R-CNN proposes potential objects, and the second stage categorizes each proposal as either background or one of the target classes. In Context R-CNN, we take the proposed objects from the first stage of Faster R-CNN, and for each one we use similarity-based attention to determine how relevant each of the features in our memory bank (M) is to the current object, and construct a per-object context feature by taking a relevance-weighted sum over M and adding it back to the original object features. Then each object, now with added contextual information, is finally categorized using the second stage of Faster R-CNN.
Context R-CNN is able to leverage context (spanning up to 1 month) to correctly categorize the challenging wildebeest example we saw above. The green values are the corresponding attention weights for each boxed object.
Compared to a Faster R-CNN baseline (left), Context R-CNN (right) is able to capture challenging objects such as an elephant occluded by a tree, two poorly-lit impala, and a vervet monkey leaving the frame. [Images from Snapshot Serengeti]
Results
We have tested Context R-CNN on Snapshot Serengeti (SS) and Caltech Camera Traps (CCT), both ecological datasets of animal species in camera traps but from highly different geographic regions (Tanzania vs. the Southwestern United States). Improvements over the Faster R-CNN baseline for each dataset can be seen in the table below. Notably, we see a 47.5% relative increase in mean average precision (mAP) on SS, and a 34.3% relative mAP increase on CCT. We also compare Context R-CNN to S3D (a 3D convolution based baseline) and see performance improve from 44.7% mAP to 55.9% mAP (a 25.1% relative increase). Finally, we find that the performance increases as the contextual time horizon increases, from a minute of context to a month.
Comparison to a single frame Faster R-CNN baseline, showing both mean average precision (mAP) and average recall (AR) detection metrics.
Ongoing and Future Work
We are working to implement Context R-CNN within the Wildlife Insights platform, to facilitate large-scale, global ecological monitoring via camera traps. We also host competitions such as the yearly iWildCam species identification competition at the CVPR Fine-Grained Visual Recognition Workshop to help bring these challenges to the attention of the computer vision community. The challenges seen in automatic species identification in static cameras are shared by numerous applications of static cameras outside of the ecological monitoring domain, as well as other static sensors used to monitor biodiversity, such as audio and sonar devices. Our method is general, and we anticipate the per-sensor context approach taken by Context R-CNN would be beneficial for any static sensor.

Acknowledgements
This post reflects the work of the authors as well as the following group of core contributors: Vivek Rathod, Guanhang Wu, Ronny Votel. We are also grateful to Zhichao Lu, David Ross, Tanya Birch and the Wildlife Insights AI team, and Pietro Perona and the Caltech Computational Vision Lab.

Source: Google AI Blog


RepNet: Counting Repetitions in Videos



Repeating processes ranging from natural cycles, such as phases of the moon or heartbeats and breathing, to artificial repetitive processes, like those found on manufacturing lines or in traffic patterns, are commonplace in our daily lives. Beyond just their prevalence, repeating processes are of interest to researchers for the variety of insights one can tease out of them. It may be that there is an underlying cause behind something that happens multiple times, or there may be gradual changes in a scene that may be useful for understanding. Sometimes, repeating processes provide us with unambiguous “action units”, semantically meaningful segments that make up an action. For example, if a person is chopping an onion, the action unit is the manipulation action that is repeated to produce additional slices. These units may be indicative of more complex activity and may allow us to analyze more such actions automatically at a finer time-scale without having a person annotate these units. For the above reasons, perceptual systems that aim to observe and understand our world for an extended period of time will benefit from a system that understands general repetitions.

In “Counting Out Time: Class Agnostic Video Repetition Counting in the Wild”, we present RepNet, a single model that can understand a broad range of repeating processes, ranging from people exercising or using tools, to animals running and birds flapping their wings, pendulums swinging, and a wide variety of others. In contrast to our previous work, which used cycle-consistency constraints across different videos of the same action to understand them at a fine-grained level, in this work we present a system that can recognize repetitions within a single video. Along with this model, we are releasing a dataset to benchmark class-agnostic counting in videos and a Colab notebook to run RepNet.

RepNet
RepNet is a model that takes as input a video that contains periodic action of a variety of classes (including those unseen during training) and returns the period of repetitions found therein. In the past the problem of repetition counting has been addressed by directly comparing pixel intensities in frames, but real world videos have camera motion, occlusion by objects in the field, drastic scale difference and changes in form, which necessitates learning of features invariant to such noise. To accomplish this we train a machine learning model in an end-to-end manner to directly estimate the period of the repetitions. The model consists of three parts: a frame encoder, an intermediate representation, called a temporal self-similarity matrix (which we will describe below), and a period predictor.

First, the frame encoder uses the ResNet architecture as a per-frame model to generate embeddings of each frame of the video The ResNet architecture was chosen since it has been successful for a number of image and video tasks. Passing each frame of a video through a ResNet-based encoder yields a sequence of embeddings.

At this point we calculate a temporal self-similarity matrix (TSM) by comparing each frame’s embedding with every other frame in the video, returning a matrix that is easy for subsequent modules to analyze for counting repetitions. This process surfaces self-similarities in the stream of video frames that enable period estimation, as demonstrated in the video below.
Demonstration of how the TSM processes images of the Earth’s day-night cycle.
For each frame, we then use Transformers to predict the period of repetition and the periodicity (i.e., whether or not a frame is part of the periodic process) directly from the sequence of similarities in the TSM. Once we have the period, we obtain the per-frame count by dividing the number of frames captured in a periodic segment by the period length. We sum this up to predict the number of repetitions in the video.
Overview of the RepNet model.
Temporal Self-Similarity Matrix
The example of the TSM from the day-night cycle, shown above, is derived from an idealized scenario with fixed period repetitions. TSMs from real videos often reveal fascinating structures in the world, as demonstrated in the three examples below. Jumping jacks are close to the ideal periodic action with a fixed period, while in contrast, the period of a bouncing ball declines as the ball loses energy through repeated bounces. The video of someone mixing concrete demonstrates repetitive action that is preceded and followed by a period without motion. These three behaviors are clearly distinguished in the learned TSM, which requires that the model pay attention to fine changes in the scene.
Jumping Jacks (constant period; video from Kinetics), Bouncing ball (decreasing period; Kinetics), Mixing concrete (aperiodic segments present in video; PERTUBE dataset).
One advantage of using the TSM as an intermediate layer in RepNet is that the subsequent processing by the transformers is done in the self-similarity space and not in the feature space. This encourages generalization to unseen classes. For example, the TSMs produced by actions as different as jumping jacks or swimming are similar as long as the action was repeated at a similar pace. This allows us to train on some classes and yet expect generalization to unseen classes.

Data
One way to train the above model would be to collect a large dataset of videos that capture repetitive activities and label them with the repetition count. The challenge in this is two-fold. First, it requires one to examine a large number of videos to identify those with repeated actions. Following that, each video must be annotated with the number of times an action was repeated. While for certain tasks annotators can skip frames (for example, to classify a video as showing jumping jacks), they still need to see the entire video in order to count how many jumping jacks were performed.

We overcome this challenge by introducing a process for synthetic data generation that produces videos with repetitions using videos that may not contain repeating actions at all. This is accomplished by randomly selecting a segment of the video to repeat an arbitrary number of times, bookended by the original video context.
Our synthetic data generation pipeline that produces videos with repetitions from any video.
While this process generates a video that resembles a natural-looking video with repeating processes, it is still too simple for deep learning methods, which can learn to cheat by looking for artifacts, instead of learning to recognize repetitions. To address this, we perform extreme data augmentation, which we call camera motion augmentation. In this method, we modify the video to simulate a camera that smoothly moves around using 2D affine motion as the video progresses.
Left: An example of a synthetic repeating video generated from a random video. Right: An example of a video with camera motion augmentation, which is tougher for the model, but results in better generalization to real repeating videos (both from Kinetics).
Evaluation
Even though we can train a model on synthetic repeating videos, the resulting models must be able to generalize to real video of repeating processes. In order to evaluate the performance of the trained models on real videos, we collect a dataset of ~9000 videos from the Kinetics dataset. These videos span many action classes and capture diverse scenes, arising from the diversity of data seen on Youtube. We annotate these videos with the count of the action being repeated in the video. To encourage further research in this field, we are releasing the count annotations for this dataset, which we call Countix.

Applications
A class-agnostic counting model has many useful applications. RepNet serves as a single model that can count repetitions from many different domains:
RepNet can count repeated activities from a range of domains, such as slicing onions (left; video from Kinetics dataset), Earth’s diurnal cycle (middle; Himawari satellite data), or even a cheetah in motion (right; video from imgur.com).
RepNet could be used to estimate heartbeat rates from echocardiogram videos even though it has not seen such videos in training:
Predicted heart rates: 45 bpm (left) and 75 bpm (right). True heart rates 46-50 bpm and 78-79 bpm, respectively. RepNet’s prediction of the heart rate across different devices is encouragingly close to the rate measured by the device. (Source for left and right)
RepNet can also be used to monitor repeating activities for any changes in speed. Below we show how the Such changes in speed can also be used in other settings for quality or process control.
In this video, we see RepNet counting accelerating cellular oscillations observed under a laser microscope even though it has never seen such a video during training, (from Nature article).
Left: Person performing a “mountain climber” exercise. Right: The 1D projection of the RepNet embeddings using principal component analysis, capturing the moment that the person changes their speed during the exercise. (Video from Kinetics)
Release
We are releasing Countix annotations for the community to work on the problem of repetition counting. We are also releasing a Colab notebook for running RepNet. Using this you can run RepNet on your videos or even using your webcam to detect periodic activities in video and count repetitions automatically in videos.

Acknowledgements
This is joint work with Yusuf Aytar, Jonathan Tompson, Pierre Sermanet, and Andrew Zisserman. Special thanks to Tom Small for designing the visual explanation of TSM. The authors thank Anelia Angelova, Relja Arandjelović, Sourish Chaudhuri, Aishwarya Gomatam, Meghana Thotakuri, and Vincent Vanhoucke for their help with this project.

Source: Google AI Blog


Google at CVPR 2020



This week marks the start of the fully virtual 2020 Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR 2020), the premier annual computer vision event consisting of the main conference, workshops and tutorials. As a leader in computer vision research and a Supporter Level Virtual Sponsor, Google will have a strong presence at CVPR 2020, with nearly 70 publications accepted, along with the organization of, and participation in, multiple workshops/tutorials.

If you are participating in CVPR this year, please visit our virtual booth to learn about what Google is actively pursuing for the next generation of intelligent systems that utilize the latest machine learning techniques applied to various areas of machine perception.

You can also learn more about our research being presented at CVPR 2020 in the list below (Google affiliations are bolded).

Organizing Committee

General Chairs: Terry Boult, Gerard Medioni, Ramin Zabih
Program Chairs: Ce Liu, Greg Mori, Kate Saenko, Silvio Savarese
Workshop Chairs: Tal Hassner, Tali Dekel
Website Chairs: Tianfan Xue, Tian Lan
Technical Chair: Daniel Vlasic
Area Chairs include: Alexander Toshev, Alexey Dosovitskiy, Boqing Gong, Caroline Pantofaru, Chen Sun, Deqing Sun, Dilip Krishnan, Feng Yang, Liang-Chieh Chen, Michael Rubinstein, Rodrigo Benenson, Timnit Gebru, Thomas Funkhouser, Varun Jampani, Vittorio Ferrari, William Freeman

Oral Presentations

Evolving Losses for Unsupervised Video Representation Learning
AJ Piergiovanni, Anelia Angelova, Michael Ryoo

CvxNet: Learnable Convex Decomposition
Boyang Deng, Kyle Genova, Soroosh Yazdani, Sofien Bouaziz, Geoffrey Hinton, Andrea Tagliasacchi

Neural SDE: Stabilizing Neural ODE Networks with Stochastic Noise
Xuanqing Liu, Tesi Xiao, Si Si, Qin Cao, Sanjiv Kumar, Cho-Jui Hsieh

Scalability in Perception for Autonomous Driving: Waymo Open Dataset
Pei Sun, Henrik Kretzschmar, Xerxes Dotiwalla‎, Aurélien Chouard, Vijaysai Patnaik, Paul Tsui, James Guo, Yin Zhou, Yuning Chai, Benjamin Caine, Vijay Vasudevan, Wei Han, Jiquan Ngiam, Hang Zhao, Aleksei Timofeev‎, Scott Ettinger, Maxim Krivokon, Amy Gao, Aditya Joshi‎, Sheng Zhao, Shuyang Chen, Yu Zhang, Jon Shlens, Zhifeng Chen, Dragomir Anguelov

Deep Implicit Volume Compression
Saurabh Singh, Danhang Tang, Cem Keskin, Philip Chou, Christian Haene, Mingsong Dou, Sean Fanello, Jonathan Taylor, Andrea Tagliasacchi, Philip Davidson, Yinda Zhang, Onur Guleryuz, Shahram Izadi, Sofien Bouaziz

Neural Networks Are More Productive Teachers Than Human Raters: Active Mixup for Data-Efficient Knowledge Distillation from a Blackbox Model
Dongdong Wan, Yandong Li, Liqiang Wang, and Boqing Gong

Google Landmarks Dataset v2 - A Large-Scale Benchmark for Instance-Level Recognition and Retrieval (see the blog post)
Tobias Weyand, Andre Araujo, Jack Sim, Bingyi Cao

CycleISP: Real Image Restoration via Improved Data Synthesis
Syed Waqas Zamir, Aditya Arora, Salman Khan, Munawar Hayat, Fahad Shahbaz Khan, Ming-Hsuan Yang, Ling Shao

Dynamic Graph Message Passing Networks
Li Zhang, Dan Xu, Anurag Arnab, Philip Torr

Local Deep Implicit Functions for 3D Shape
Kyle Genova, Forrester Cole, Avneesh Sud, Aaron Sarna, Thomas Funkhouser

GHUM & GHUML: Generative 3D Human Shape and Articulated Pose Models
Hongyi Xu, Eduard Gabriel Bazavan, Andrei Zanfir, William Freeman, Rahul Sukthankar, Cristian Sminchisescu

Search to Distill: Pearls are Everywhere but not the Eyes
Yu Liu, Xuhui Jia, Mingxing Tan, Raviteja Vemulapalli, Yukun Zhu, Bradley Green, Xiaogang Wang

Semantic Pyramid for Image Generation
Assaf Shocher, Yossi Gandelsman, Inbar Mosseri, Michal Yarom, Michal Irani, William Freeman, Tali Dekel

Flow Contrastive Estimation of Energy-Based Models
Ruiqi Gao, Erik Nijkamp, Diederik Kingma, Zhen Xu, Andrew Dai, Ying Nian Wu

Rethinking Class-Balanced Methods for Long-Tailed Visual Recognition from A Domain Adaptation Perspective
Muhammad Abdullah Jamal, Matthew Brown, Ming-Hsuan Yang, Liqiang Wang, Boqing Gong

Category-Level Articulated Object Pose Estimation
Xiaolong Li, He Wang, Li Yi, Leonidas Guibas, Amos Abbott, Shuran Song

AdaCoSeg: Adaptive Shape Co-Segmentation with Group Consistency Loss
Chenyang Zhu, Kai Xu, Siddhartha Chaudhuri, Li Yi, Leonidas Guibas, Hao Zhang

SpeedNet: Learning the Speediness in Videos
Sagie Benaim, Ariel Ephrat, Oran Lang, Inbar Mosseri, William Freeman, Michael Rubinstein, Michal Irani, Tali Dekel

BSP-Net: Generating Compact Meshes via Binary Space Partitioning
Zhiqin Chen, Andrea Tagliasacchi, Hao Zhang

SAPIEN: A SimulAted Part-based Interactive ENvironment
Fanbo Xiang, Yuzhe Qin, Kaichun Mo, Yikuan Xia, Hao Zhu, Fangchen Liu, Minghua Liu, Hanxiao Jiang, Yifu Yuan, He Wang, Li Yi, Angel Chang, Leonidas Guibas, Hao Su

SurfelGAN: Synthesizing Realistic Sensor Data for Autonomous Driving
Zhenpei Yang, Yuning Chai, Dragomir Anguelov, Yin Zhou, Pei Sun, Dumitru Erhan, Sean Rafferty, Henrik Kretzschmar

Filter Response Normalization Layer: Eliminating Batch Dependence in the Training of Deep Neural Networks
Saurabh Singh, Shankar Krishnan

RL-CycleGAN: Reinforcement Learning Aware Simulation-To-Real
Kanishka Rao, Chris Harris, Alex Irpan, Sergey Levine, Julian Ibarz, Mohi Khansari

Open Compound Domain Adaptation
Ziwei Liu, Zhongqi Miao, Xingang Pan, Xiaohang Zhan, Dahua Lin, Stella X.Yu, and Boqing Gong

Posters
Single-view view synthesis with multiplane images
Richard Tucker, Noah Snavely

Adversarial Examples Improve Image Recognition
Cihang Xie, Mingxing Tan, Boqing Gong, Jiang Wang, Alan Yuille, Quoc V. Le

Adversarial Texture Optimization from RGB-D Scans
Jingwei Huang, Justus Thies, Angela Dai, Abhijit Kundu, Chiyu “Max” Jiang,Leonidas Guibas, Matthias Niessner, Thomas Funkhouser

Single-Image HDR Reconstruction by Learning to Reverse the Camera Pipeline
Yu-Lun Liu, Wei-Sheng Lai, Yu-Sheng Chen, Yi-Lung Kao, Ming-Hsuan Yang,Yung-Yu Chuang, Jia-Bin Huang

Collaborative Distillation for Ultra-Resolution Universal Style Transfer
Huan Wang, Yijun Li, Yuehai Wang, Haoji Hu, Ming-Hsuan Yang

Learning to Autofocus
Charles Herrmann, Richard Strong Bowen, Neal Wadhwa, Rahul Garg, Qiurui He, Jonathan T. Barron, Ramin Zabih

Multi-Scale Boosted Dehazing Network with Dense Feature Fusion
Hang Dong, Jinshan Pan, Lei Xiang, Zhe Hu, Xinyi Zhang, Fei Wang, Ming-Hsuan Yang

Composing Good Shots by Exploiting Mutual Relations
Debang Li, Junge Zhang, Kaiqi Huang, Ming-Hsuan Yang

PatchVAE: Learning Local Latent Codes for Recognition
Kamal Gupta, Saurabh Singh, Abhinav Shrivastava

Neural Voxel Renderer: Learning an Accurate and Controllable Rendering Tool
Konstantinos Rematas, Vittorio Ferrari

Local Implicit Grid Representations for 3D Scenes
Chiyu “Max” Jiang, Avneesh Sud, Ameesh Makadia, Jingwei Huang, Matthias Niessner, Thomas Funkhouser

Large Scale Video Representation Learning via Relational Graph Clustering
Hyodong Lee, Joonseok Lee, Joe Yue-Hei Ng, Apostol (Paul) Natsev

Deep Homography Estimation for Dynamic Scenes
Hoang Le, Feng Liu, Shu Zhang, Aseem Agarwala

C-Flow: Conditional Generative Flow Models for Images and 3D Point Clouds
Albert Pumarola, Stefan Popov, Francesc Moreno-Noguer, Vittorio Ferrari

Lighthouse: Predicting Lighting Volumes for Spatially-Coherent Illumination
Pratul Srinivasan, Ben Mildenhall, Matthew Tancik, Jonathan T. Barron, Richard Tucker, Noah Snavely

Scale-space flow for end-to-end optimized video compression
Eirikur Agustsson, David Minnen, Nick Johnston, Johannes Ballé, Sung Jin Hwang, George Toderici

StructEdit: Learning Structural Shape Variations
Kaichun Mo, Paul Guerrero, Li Yi, Hao Su, Peter Wonka, Niloy Mitra, Leonidas Guibas

3D-MPA: Multi Proposal Aggregation for 3D Semantic Instance Segmentation
Francis Engelmann, Martin Bokeloh, Alireza Fathi, Bastian Leibe, Matthias Niessner

Sequential mastery of multiple tasks: Networks naturally learn to learn and forget to forget
Guy Davidson, Michael C. Mozer

Distilling Effective Supervision from Severe Label Noise
Zizhao Zhang, Han Zhang, Sercan Ö. Arik, Honglak Lee, Tomas Pfister

ViewAL: Active Learning With Viewpoint Entropy for Semantic Segmentation
Yawar Siddiqui, Julien Valentin, Matthias Niessner

Attribution in Scale and Space
Shawn Xu, Subhashini Venugopalan, Mukund Sundararajan

Weakly-Supervised Semantic Segmentation via Sub-category Exploration
Yu-Ting Chang, Qiaosong Wang, Wei-Chih Hung, Robinson Piramuthu, Yi-Hsuan Tsai, Ming-Hsuan Yang

Speech2Action: Cross-modal Supervision for Action Recognition
Arsha Nagrani, Chen Sun, David Ross, Rahul Sukthankar, Cordelia Schmid, Andrew Zisserman

Counting Out Time: Class Agnostic Video Repetition Counting in the Wild
Debidatta Dwibedi, Yusuf Aytar, Jonathan Tompson, Pierre Sermanet, Andrew Zisserman

The Garden of Forking Paths: Towards Multi-Future Trajectory Prediction
Junwei Liang, Lu Jiang, Kevin Murphy, Ting Yu, Alexander Hauptmann

Self-training with Noisy Student improves ImageNet classification
Qizhe Xie, Minh-Thang Luong, Eduard Hovy, Quoc V. Le

EfficientDet: Scalable and Efficient Object Detection (see the blog post)
Mingxing Tan, Ruoming Pang, Quoc Le

ACNe: Attentive Context Normalization for Robust Permutation-Equivariant Learning
Weiwei Sun, Wei Jiang, Eduard Trulls, Andrea Tagliasacchi, Kwang Moo Yi

VectorNet: Encoding HD Maps and Agent Dynamics from Vectorized Representation
Jiyang Gao, Chen Sun, Hang Zhao, Yi Shen, Dragomir Anguelov, Cordelia Schmid, Congcong Li

SpineNet: Learning Scale-Permuted Backbone for Recognition and Localization
Xianzhi Du, Tsung-Yi Lin, Pengchong Jin, Golnaz Ghiasi, Mingxing Tan, Yin Cui, Quoc Le, Xiaodan Song

KeyPose: Multi-View 3D Labeling and Keypoint Estimation for Transparent Objects
Xingyu Liu, Rico Jonschkowski, Anelia Angelova, Kurt Konolige

Structured Multi-Hashing for Model Compression
Elad Eban, Yair Movshovitz-Attias, Hao Wu, Mark Sandler, Andrew Poon, Yerlan Idelbayev, Miguel A. Carreira-Perpinan

DOPS: Learning to Detect 3D Objects and Predict their 3D Shapes
Mahyar Najibi, Guangda Lai, Abhijit Kundu, Zhichao Lu, Vivek Rathod, Tom Funkhouser, Caroline Pantofaru, David Ross, Larry Davis, Alireza Fathi

Panoptic-DeepLab: A Simple, Strong, and Fast Baseline for Bottom-Up Panoptic Segmentation
Bowen Cheng, Maxwell Collins, Yukun Zhu, Ting Liu, Thomas S. Huang, Hartwig Adam, Liang-Chieh Chen

Context R-CNN: Long Term Temporal Context for Per-Camera Object Detection
Sara Beery, Guanhang Wu, Vivek Rathod, Ronny Votel, Jonathan Huang

Distortion Agnostic Deep Watermarking
Xiyang Luo, Ruohan Zhan, Huiwen Chang, Feng Yang, Peyman Milanfar

Can weight sharing outperform random architecture search? An investigation with TuNAS
Gabriel Bender, Hanxiao Liu, Bo Chen, Grace Chu, Shuyang Cheng, Pieter-Jan Kindermans, Quoc Le

GIFnets: Differentiable GIF Encoding Framework
Innfarn Yoo, Xiyang Luo, Yilin Wang, Feng Yang, Peyman Milanfar

Your Local GAN: Designing Two Dimensional Local Attention Mechanisms for Generative Models
Giannis Daras, Augustus Odena, Han Zhang, Alex Dimakis

Fast Sparse ConvNets
Erich Elsen, Marat Dukhan, Trevor Gale, Karen Simonyan

RetinaTrack: Online Single Stage Joint Detection and Tracking
Zhichao Lu, Vivek Rathod, Ronny Votel, Jonathan Huang

Learning to See Through Obstructions
Yu-Lun Liu, Wei-Sheng Lai, Ming-Hsuan Yang,Yung-Yu Chuang, Jia-Bin Huang

Self-Supervised Learning of Video-Induced Visual Invariances
Michael Tschannen, Josip Djolonga, Marvin Ritter, Aravindh Mahendran, Neil Houlsby, Sylvain Gelly, Mario Lucic

Workshops

3rd Workshop and Challenge on Learned Image Compression
Organizers include: George Toderici, Eirikur Agustsson, Lucas Theis, Johannes Ballé, Nick Johnston

CLVISION 1st Workshop on Continual Learning in Computer Vision
Organizers include: Zhiyuan (Brett) Chen, Marc Pickett

Embodied AI
Organizers include: Alexander Toshev, Jie Tan, Aleksandra Faust, Anelia Angelova

The 1st International Workshop and Prize Challenge on Agriculture-Vision: Challenges & Opportunities for Computer Vision in Agriculture
Organizers include: Zhen Li, Jim Yuan

Embodied AI
Organizers include: Alexander Toshev, Jie Tan, Aleksandra Faust, Anelia Angelova

New Trends in Image Restoration and Enhancement workshop and challenges on image and video restoration and enhancement (NTIRE)
Talk: “Sky Optimization: Semantically aware image processing of skies in low-light photography”
Orly Liba, Longqi Cai, Yun-Ta Tsai, Elad Eban, Yair Movshovitz-Attias, Yael Pritch, Huizhong Chen, Jonathan Barron

The End-of-End-to-End A Video Understanding Pentathlon
Organizers include: Rahul Sukthankar

4th Workshop on Media Forensics
Organizers include: Christoph Bregler

4th Workshop on Visual Understanding by Learning from Web Data
Organizers include: Jesse Berent, Rahul Sukthankar

AI for Content Creation
Organizers include: Deqing Sun, Lu Jiang, Weilong Yang

Fourth Workshop on Computer Vision for AR/VR
Organizers include: Sofien Bouaziz

Low-Power Computer Vision Competition (LPCVC)
Organizers include: Bo Chen, Andrew Howard, Jaeyoun Kim

Sight and Sound
Organizers include: William Freeman

Workshop on Efficient Deep Learning for Computer Vision
Organizers include: Pete Warden

Extreme classification in computer vision
Organizers include: Ramin Zabih, Zhen Li

Image Matching: Local Features and Beyond (see the blog post)
Organizers include: Eduard Trulls

The DAVIS Challenge on Video Object Segmentation
Organizers include: Alberto Montes, Jordi Pont-Tuset, Kevis-Kokitsi Maninis

2nd Workshop on Precognition: Seeing through the Future
Organizers include: Utsav Prabhu

Computational Cameras and Displays (CCD)
Talk: Orly Liba

2nd Workshop on Learning from Unlabeled Videos (LUV)
Organizers include:Honglak Lee, Rahul Sukthankar

7th Workshop on Fine Grained Visual Categorization (FGVC7) (see the blog post)
Organizers include: Christine Kaeser-Chen, Serge Belongie

Language & Vision with applications to Video Understanding
Organizers include: Lu Jiang

Neural Architecture Search and Beyond for Representation Learning
Organizers include: Barret Zoph

Tutorials

Disentangled 3D Representations for Relightable Performance Capture of Humans
Organizers include: Sean Fanello, Christoph Rhemann, Jonathan Taylor, Sofien Bouaziz, Adarsh Kowdle, Rohit Pandey, Sergio Orts-Escolano, Paul Debevec, Shahram Izadi

Learning Representations via Graph-Structured Networks
Organizers include:Chen Sun, Ming-Hsuan Yang

Novel View Synthesis: From Depth-Based Warping to Multi-Plane Images and Beyond
Organizers include:Varun Jampani

How to Write a Good Review
Talks by:Vittorio Ferrari, Bill Freeman, Jordi Pont-Tuset

Neural Rendering
Organizers include:Ricardo Martin-Brualla, Rohit K. Pandey, Sean Fanello,Maneesh Agrawala, Dan B. Goldman

Fairness Accountability Transparency and Ethics and Computer Vision
Organizers: Timnit Gebru, Emily Denton

Source: Google AI Blog


Announcing the 7th Fine-Grained Visual Categorization Workshop



Fine-grained visual categorization refers to the problem of distinguishing between images of closely related entities, e.g., a monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) from a viceroy (Limenitis archippus). At the time of the first FGVC workshop in 2011, very few fine-grained datasets existed, and the ones that were available (e.g., the CUB dataset of 200 bird species, launched at that workshop) presented a formidable challenge to the leading classification algorithms of the time. Fast forward to 2020, and the computer vision landscape has undergone breathtaking changes. Deep learning based methods helped CUB-200-2011 accuracy rocket from 17% to 90% and fine-grained datasets have proliferated, with data arriving from a diverse array of institutions, such as art museums, apparel retailers, and cassava farms.

In order to help support even further progress in this field, we are excited to sponsor and co-organize the 7th Workshop on Fine-Grained Visual Categorization (FGVC7), which will take place as a virtual gathering on June 19, 2020, in conjunction with the IEEE conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR). We’re excited to highlight this year’s world-class lineup of fine-grained challenges, ranging from fruit tree disease prediction to fashion attributes, and we invite computer vision researchers from across the world to participate in the workshop.
The FGVC workshop at CVPR 2020 focuses on subordinate categories, including (from left to right) wildlife camera traps, plant pathology, birds, herbarium sheets, apparel, and museum artifacts.
Real-World Impact of the FGVC Challenges
In addition to pushing the frontier of fine-grained recognition on ever more challenging datasets, each FGVC workshop cycle provides opportunities for fostering new collaborations between researchers and practitioners. Some of the efforts from the FGVC workshop have made the leap into the hands of real world users.

The 2018 FGVC workshop hosted a Fungi challenge with data for 1,500 mushroom species provided by the Danish Mycological Society. When the competition concluded, the leaderboard was topped by a team from Czech Technical University and the University of West Bohemia.

The mycologists subsequently invited the Czech researchers for a visit to Copenhagen to explore further collaboration and field test a new workflow for collaborative machine learning research in biodiversity. This resulted in a jointly authored conference paper, a mushroom recognition app for Android and iOS, and an open access model published on TensorFlow Hub.
The Svampeatlas app for mushroom recognition is a result of a Danish-Czech collaboration spun out of the FGVC 2018 Fungi challenge. The underlying model is now published on TF Hub. Images used with permission of the Danish Mycological Society.
The iCassava Disease Challenge from 2019 mentioned above is another example of an FGVC team effort finding its way into the real world. In this challenge, Google researchers in Ghana collaborated with Makerere University and the National Crops Resources Research Institute (NaCRRI) to produce an annotated dataset of five cassava disease categories.
Examples of cassava leaf disease represented in the 2019 iCassava challenge.
The teams are testing a new model in the fields in Uganda with local farmers, and the model will be published on TFHub soon.

This Year’s Challenges
FGVC7 will feature six challenges, four of which represent sequels to past offerings, and two of which are brand new.

In iWildCam, the challenge is to identify different species of animals in camera trap images. Like its predecessors in 2018 and 2019, this year’s competition makes use of data from static, motion-triggered cameras used by biologists to study animals in the wild. Participants compete to build models that address diverse regions from around the globe, with a focus on generalization to held-out camera deployments within those regions, which exhibit differences in device model, image quality, local environment, lighting conditions, and species distributions, making generalization difficult.

It has been shown that species classification performance can be dramatically improved by using information beyond the image itself. In addition, since an ecosystem can be monitored in a variety of ways (e.g., camera traps, citizen scientists, remote sensing), each of which has its own strengths and limitations, it is important to facilitate the exploration of techniques for combining these complementary modalities. To this end, the competition provides a time series of remote sensing imagery for each camera trap location, as well as images from the iNaturalist competition datasets for species in the camera trap data.
Side-by-side comparison of image quality from iWildcam, captured from wildlife camera traps, (left) and iNaturalist (right), captured by conventional cameras. Images are from the 2020 iWildCam Challenge, and the iNaturalist competition datasets from 2017 and 2018.
The Herbarium Challenge, now in its second year, entails plant species identification, based on a large, long-tailed collection of herbarium specimens. Developed in collaboration with the New York Botanical Garden (NYBG), this challenge features over 1 million images representing over 32,000 plant species. Last year’s challenge was based on 46,000 specimens for 680 species. Being able to recognize species from historical herbarium collections can not only help botanists better understand changes in plant life on our planet, but also offers a unique opportunity to identify previously undescribed new species in the collection.
Representative examples of specimens from the 2020 Herbarium challenge. Images used with permission of the New York Botanical Garden.
In this year’s iMat Fashion challenge, participants compete to perform apparel instance segmentation and fine-grained attribute classification. The goal of this competition is to push the state of the art in fine-grained segmentation by joining forces between the fashion and computer vision communities. This challenge is in its third iteration, growing both in size and level of detail over past years’ offerings.

The last of the sequels is iMet, in which participants are challenged with building algorithms for fine-grained attribute classification on works of art. Developed in collaboration with the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the dataset has grown significantly since the 2019 edition, with a wide array of new cataloguing information generated by subject matter experts including multiple object classifications, artist, title, period, date, medium, culture, size, provenance, geographic location, and other related museum objects within the Met’s collection.

Semi-Supervised Aves is one of the new challenges at this year’s workshop. While avian data from iNaturalist has featured prominently in past FGVC challenges, this challenge focuses on the problem of learning from partially labeled data, a form of semi-supervised learning. The dataset is designed to expose some of the challenges encountered in realistic settings, such as the fine-grained similarity between classes, significant class imbalance, and domain mismatch between the labeled and unlabeled data.

Rounding out the set of challenges is Plant Pathology. In this challenge, the participants attempt to spot foliar diseases of apples using a reference dataset of expert-annotated diseased specimens. While this particular challenge is new to the FGVC community, it is the second such challenge to involve plant disease, the first being iCassava at last year’s FGVC.

Invitation to Participate
The results of these competitions will be presented at the FGVC7 workshop by top performing teams. We invite researchers, practitioners, and domain experts to participate in the FGVC workshop to learn more about state-of-the-art advances in fine-grained image recognition. We are excited to encourage the community's development of cutting edge algorithms for fine-grained visual categorization and foster new collaborations with global impact!

Acknowledgements
We’d like to thank our colleagues and friends on the FGVC7 organizing committee for working together to advance this important area. At Google we would like to thank Hartwig Adam, Kiat Chuan Tan, Arvi Gjoka, Kimberly Wilber, Sara Beery, Mikhail Sirotenko, Denis Brulé, Timnit Gebru, Ernest Mwebaze, Wojciech Sirko, Maggie Demkin.

Source: Google AI Blog


Announcing the Third Workshop and Challenge on Learned Image Compression



With the large amount of media content being downloaded and streamed across the internet, minimizing bandwidth while maintaining quality remains a constant challenge. In 2015, researchers demonstrated that neural network-based image compression could yield significant improvements to image resolution while retaining good quality and high compression speed. Continued advances in compression and bandwidth optimization techniques were stimulated in part by two successful workshops that we hosted at CVPR in 2018 and 2019.

Today, we are excited to announce the Third Workshop and Challenge On Learned Image Compression (CLIC) at CVPR 2020. This workshop challenges researchers to use machine learning, neural networks and other computer vision approaches to increase the quality and lower the bandwidth needed for multimedia transmission. This year’s workshop will also include two challenges: a low-rate image compression challenge and a P-Frame video compression challenge.

Similar to previous years, the goal of the low-rate image compression challenge is to compress an image dataset to 0.15 bits per pixel while maintaining the highest possible quality. Finalists will be selected by measuring their performance against the PSNR and MS-SSIM evaluation metrics. The final ranking will then be determined by a human evaluated rating task.

This year we are also introducing a P-Frame compression track, the first video compression task in this series. In this challenge, participants must first generate a transformation between two adjacent video frames. In the decompression part of the task, participants then use the first frame and their compressed representation to reconstruct the second frame. This challenge will be ranked based solely on the MS-SSIM performance score.

If you are doing research in the field of learned image compression or video compression, we encourage you to participate in CLIC, whether in the two competitions or the paper-only track for publications to be presented at the workshop at CVPR 2020. The validation server is currently available for submissions. The deadline for the final submission of the test set is March 23rd, 2020. For more details on the competition and an up-to-date schedule, please refer to compression.cc. Additional announcements and answers to questions can be found on our Google Groups page.

Acknowledgements
This workshop is being jointly hosted by researchers at Google, Twitter and ETH Zurich. We’d like to thank: George Toderici (Google), Nick Johnston (Google), Johannes Ballé (Google), Eirikur Agustsson (Google), Lucas Theis (Google), Wenzhe Shi (Twitter), Radu Timofte (ETH Zurich) and Fabian Mentzer (ETH Zurich) for their contributions.

Source: Google AI Blog


Google at CVPR 2019

Andrew Helton, Editor, Google AI Communications

This week, Long Beach, CA hosts the 2019 Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR 2019), the premier annual computer vision event comprising the main conference and several co-located workshops and tutorials. As a leader in computer vision research and a Platinum Sponsor, Google will have a strong presence at CVPR 2019—over 250 Googlers will be in attendance to present papers and invited talks at the conference, and to organize and participate in multiple workshops.

If you are attending CVPR this year, please stop by our booth and chat with our researchers who are actively pursuing the next generation of intelligent systems that utilize the latest machine learning techniques applied to various areas of machine perception. Our researchers will also be available to talk about and demo several recent efforts, including the technology behind predicting pedestrian motion, the Open Images V5 dataset and much more.

You can learn more about our research being presented at CVPR 2019 in the list below (Google affiliations highlighted in blue)

Area Chairs include:
Jonathan T. Barron, William T. Freeman, Ce Liu, Michael Ryoo, Noah Snavely

Oral Presentations
Relational Action Forecasting
Chen Sun, Abhinav Shrivastava, Carl Vondrick, Rahul Sukthankar, Kevin Murphy, Cordelia Schmid

Pushing the Boundaries of View Extrapolation With Multiplane Images
Pratul P. Srinivasan, Richard Tucker, Jonathan T. Barron, Ravi Ramamoorthi, Ren Ng, Noah Snavely

Auto-DeepLab: Hierarchical Neural Architecture Search for Semantic Image Segmentation
Chenxi Liu, Liang-Chieh Chen, Florian Schroff, Hartwig Adam, Wei Hua, Alan L. Yuille, Li Fei-Fei

AutoAugment: Learning Augmentation Strategies From Data
Ekin D. Cubuk, Barret Zoph, Dandelion Mane, Vijay Vasudevan, Quoc V. Le

DeepView: View Synthesis With Learned Gradient Descent
John Flynn, Michael Broxton, Paul Debevec, Matthew DuVall, Graham Fyffe, Ryan Overbeck, Noah Snavely, Richard Tucker

Normalized Object Coordinate Space for Category-Level 6D Object Pose and Size Estimation
He Wang, Srinath Sridhar, Jingwei Huang, Julien Valentin, Shuran Song, Leonidas J. Guibas

Do Better ImageNet Models Transfer Better?
Simon Kornblith, Jonathon Shlens, Quoc V. Le

TextureNet: Consistent Local Parametrizations for Learning From High-Resolution Signals on Meshes
Jingwei Huang, Haotian Zhang, Li Yi, Thomas Funkhouser, Matthias Niessner, Leonidas J. Guibas

Diverse Generation for Multi-Agent Sports Games
Raymond A. Yeh, Alexander G. Schwing, Jonathan Huang, Kevin Murphy

Occupancy Networks: Learning 3D Reconstruction in Function Space
Lars Mescheder, Michael Oechsle, Michael Niemeyer, Sebastian Nowozin, Andreas Geiger

A General and Adaptive Robust Loss Function
Jonathan T. Barron

Learning the Depths of Moving People by Watching Frozen People
Zhengqi Li, Tali Dekel, Forrester Cole, Richard Tucker, Noah Snavely, Ce Liu, William T. Freeman

Composing Text and Image for Image Retrieval - an Empirical Odyssey
Nam Vo, Lu Jiang, Chen Sun, Kevin Murphy, Li-Jia Li, Li Fei-Fei, James Hays

Learning to Synthesize Motion Blur
Tim Brooks, Jonathan T. Barron

Neural Rerendering in the Wild
Moustafa Meshry, Dan B. Goldman, Sameh Khamis, Hugues Hoppe, Rohit Pandey, Noah Snavely, Ricardo Martin-Brualla

Neural Illumination: Lighting Prediction for Indoor Environments
Shuran Song, Thomas Funkhouser

Unprocessing Images for Learned Raw Denoising
Tim Brooks, Ben Mildenhall, Tianfan Xue, Jiawen Chen, Dillon Sharlet, Jonathan T. Barron

Posters
Co-Occurrent Features in Semantic Segmentation
Hang Zhang, Han Zhang, Chenguang Wang, Junyuan Xie

CrDoCo: Pixel-Level Domain Transfer With Cross-Domain Consistency
Yun-Chun Chen, Yen-Yu Lin, Ming-Hsuan Yang, Jia-Bin Huang

Im2Pencil: Controllable Pencil Illustration From Photographs
Yijun Li, Chen Fang, Aaron Hertzmann, Eli Shechtman, Ming-Hsuan Yang

Mode Seeking Generative Adversarial Networks for Diverse Image Synthesis
Qi Mao, Hsin-Ying Lee, Hung-Yu Tseng, Siwei Ma, Ming-Hsuan Yang

Revisiting Self-Supervised Visual Representation Learning
Alexander Kolesnikov, Xiaohua Zhai, Lucas Beyer

Scene Graph Generation With External Knowledge and Image Reconstruction
Jiuxiang Gu, Handong Zhao, Zhe Lin, Sheng Li, Jianfei Cai, Mingyang Ling

Scene Memory Transformer for Embodied Agents in Long-Horizon Tasks
Kuan Fang, Alexander Toshev, Li Fei-Fei, Silvio Savarese

Spatially Variant Linear Representation Models for Joint Filtering
Jinshan Pan, Jiangxin Dong, Jimmy S. Ren, Liang Lin, Jinhui Tang, Ming-Hsuan Yang

Target-Aware Deep Tracking
Xin Li, Chao Ma, Baoyuan Wu, Zhenyu He, Ming-Hsuan Yang

Temporal Cycle-Consistency Learning
Debidatta Dwibedi, Yusuf Aytar, Jonathan Tompson, Pierre Sermanet, Andrew Zisserman

Depth-Aware Video Frame Interpolation
Wenbo Bao, Wei-Sheng Lai, Chao Ma, Xiaoyun Zhang, Zhiyong Gao, Ming-Hsuan Yang

MnasNet: Platform-Aware Neural Architecture Search for Mobile
Mingxing Tan, Bo Chen, Ruoming Pang, Vijay Vasudevan, Mark Sandler, Andrew Howard, Quoc V. Le

A Compact Embedding for Facial Expression Similarity
Raviteja Vemulapalli, Aseem Agarwala

Contrastive Adaptation Network for Unsupervised Domain Adaptation
Guoliang Kang, Lu Jiang, Yi Yang, Alexander G. Hauptmann

DeepLight: Learning Illumination for Unconstrained Mobile Mixed Reality
Chloe LeGendre, Wan-Chun Ma, Graham Fyffe, John Flynn, Laurent Charbonnel, Jay Busch, Paul Debevec

Detect-To-Retrieve: Efficient Regional Aggregation for Image Search
Marvin Teichmann, Andre Araujo, Menglong Zhu, Jack Sim

Fast Object Class Labelling via Speech
Michael Gygli, Vittorio Ferrari

Learning Independent Object Motion From Unlabelled Stereoscopic Videos
Zhe Cao, Abhishek Kar, Christian Hane, Jitendra Malik

Peeking Into the Future: Predicting Future Person Activities and Locations in Videos
Junwei Liang, Lu Jiang, Juan Carlos Niebles, Alexander G. Hauptmann, Li Fei-Fei

SpotTune: Transfer Learning Through Adaptive Fine-Tuning
Yunhui Guo, Honghui Shi, Abhishek Kumar, Kristen Grauman, Tajana Rosing, Rogerio Feris

NAS-FPN: Learning Scalable Feature Pyramid Architecture for Object Detection
Golnaz Ghiasi, Tsung-Yi Lin, Quoc V. Le

Class-Balanced Loss Based on Effective Number of Samples
Yin Cui, Menglin Jia, Tsung-Yi Lin, Yang Song, Serge Belongie

FEELVOS: Fast End-To-End Embedding Learning for Video Object Segmentation
Paul Voigtlaender, Yuning Chai, Florian Schroff, Hartwig Adam, Bastian Leibe, Liang-Chieh Chen

Inserting Videos Into Videos
Donghoon Lee, Tomas Pfister, Ming-Hsuan Yang

Volumetric Capture of Humans With a Single RGBD Camera via Semi-Parametric Learning
Rohit Pandey, Anastasia Tkach, Shuoran Yang, Pavel Pidlypenskyi, Jonathan Taylor, Ricardo Martin-Brualla, Andrea Tagliasacchi, George Papandreou, Philip Davidson, Cem Keskin, Shahram Izadi, Sean Fanello

You Look Twice: GaterNet for Dynamic Filter Selection in CNNs
Zhourong Chen, Yang Li, Samy Bengio, Si Si

Interactive Full Image Segmentation by Considering All Regions Jointly
Eirikur Agustsson, Jasper R. R. Uijlings, Vittorio Ferrari

Large-Scale Interactive Object Segmentation With Human Annotators
Rodrigo Benenson, Stefan Popov, Vittorio Ferrari

Self-Supervised GANs via Auxiliary Rotation Loss
Ting Chen, Xiaohua Zhai, Marvin Ritter, Mario Lučić, Neil Houlsby

Sim-To-Real via Sim-To-Sim: Data-Efficient Robotic Grasping via Randomized-To-Canonical Adaptation Networks
Stephen James, Paul Wohlhart, Mrinal Kalakrishnan, Dmitry Kalashnikov, Alex Irpan, Julian Ibarz, Sergey Levine, Raia Hadsell, Konstantinos Bousmalis

Using Unknown Occluders to Recover Hidden Scenes
Adam B. Yedidia, Manel Baradad, Christos Thrampoulidis, William T. Freeman, Gregory W. Wornell

Workshops
Computer Vision for Global Challenges
Organizers include: Timnit Gebru, Ernest Mwebaze, John Quinn

Deep Vision 2019
Invited speakers include: Pierre Sermanet, Chris Bregler

Landmark Recognition
Organizers include: Andre Araujo, Bingyi Cao, Jack Sim, Tobias Weyand

Image Matching: Local Features and Beyond
Organizers include: Eduard Trulls

3D-WiDGET: Deep GEneraTive Models for 3D Understanding
Invited speakers include: Julien Valentin

Fine-Grained Visual Categorization
Organizers include: Christine Kaeser-Chen
Advisory panel includes: Hartwig Adam

Low-Power Image Recognition Challenge (LPIRC)
Organizers include: Aakanksha Chowdhery, Achille Brighton, Alec Go, Andrew Howard, Bo Chen, Jaeyoun Kim, Jeff Gilbert

New Trends in Image Restoration and Enhancement Workshop and Associated Challenges
Program chairs include: Vivek Kwatra, Peyman Milanfar, Sebastian Nowozin, George Toderici, Ming-Hsuan Yang

Spatio-temporal Action Recognition (AVA) @ ActivityNet Challenge
Organizers include: David Ross, Sourish Chaudhuri, Radhika Marvin, Arkadiusz Stopczynski, Joseph Roth, Caroline Pantofaru, Chen Sun, Cordelia Schmid

Third Workshop on Computer Vision for AR/VR
Organizers include: Sofien Bouaziz, Serge Belongie

DAVIS Challenge on Video Object Segmentation
Organizers include: Jordi Pont-Tuset, Alberto Montes

Efficient Deep Learning for Computer Vision
Invited speakers include: Andrew Howard

Fairness Accountability Transparency and Ethics in Computer Vision
Organizers include: Timnit Gebru, Margaret Mitchell

Precognition Seeing through the Future
Organizers include: Utsav Prabhu

Workshop and Challenge on Learned Image Compression
Organizers include: George Toderici, Michele Covell, Johannes Ballé, Eirikur Agustsson, Nick Johnston

When Blockchain Meets Computer Vision & AI
Invited speakers include: Chris Bregler

Applications of Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition to Media Forensics
Organizers include: Paul Natsev, Christoph Bregler

Tutorials
Towards Relightable Volumetric Performance Capture of Humans
Organizers include: Sean Fanello, Christoph Rhemann, Graham Fyffe, Jonathan Taylor, Sofien Bouaziz, Paul Debevec, Shahram Izadi

Learning Representations via Graph-structured Networks
Organizers include: Ming-Hsuan Yang

Source: Google AI Blog


Announcing Google-Landmarks-v2: An Improved Dataset for Landmark Recognition & Retrieval



Last year we released Google-Landmarks, the largest world-wide landmark recognition dataset available at that time. In order to foster advancements in research on instance-level recognition (recognizing specific instances of objects, e.g. distinguishing Niagara Falls from just any waterfall) and image retrieval (matching a specific object in an input image to all other instances of that object in a catalog of reference images), we also hosted two Kaggle challenges, Landmark Recognition 2018 and Landmark Retrieval 2018, in which more than 500 teams of researchers and machine learning (ML) enthusiasts participated. However, both instance recognition and image retrieval methods require ever larger datasets in both the number of images and the variety of landmarks in order to train better and more robust systems.

In support of this goal, this year we are releasing Google-Landmarks-v2, a completely new, even larger landmark recognition dataset that includes over 5 million images (2x that of the first release) of more than 200 thousand different landmarks (an increase of 7x). Due to the difference in scale, this dataset is much more diverse and creates even greater challenges for state-of-the-art instance recognition approaches. Based on this new dataset, we are also announcing two new Kaggle challenges—Landmark Recognition 2019 and Landmark Retrieval 2019—and releasing the source code and model for Detect-to-Retrieve, a novel image representation suitable for retrieval of specific object instances.
Heatmap of the landmark locations in Google-Landmarks-v2, which demonstrates the increase in the scale of the dataset and the improved geographic coverage compared to last year’s dataset.
Creating the Dataset
A particular problem in preparing Google-Landmarks-v2 was the generation of instance labels for the landmarks represented, since it is virtually impossible for annotators to recognize all of the hundreds of thousands of landmarks that could potentially be present in a given photo. Our solution to this problem was to crowdsource the landmark labeling through the efforts of a world-spanning community of hobby photographers, each familiar with the landmarks in their region.
Selection of images from Google-Landmarks-v2. Landmarks include (left to right, top to bottom) Neuschwanstein Castle, Golden Gate Bridge, Kiyomizu-dera, Burj khalifa, Great Sphinx of Giza, and Machu Picchu.
Another issue for research datasets is the requirement that images be shared freely and stored indefinitely, so that the dataset can be used to track the progress of research over a long period of time. As such, we sourced the Google-Landmarks-v2 images through Wikimedia Commons, capturing both world-famous and lesser-known, local landmarks while ensuring broad geographic coverage (thanks in part to Wiki Loves Monuments) and photos sourced from public institutions, including historical photographs that are valuable to test instance recognition over time.

The Kaggle Challenges
The goal of the Landmark Recognition 2019 challenge is to recognize a landmark presented in a query image, while the goal of Landmark Retrieval 2019 is to find all images showing that landmark. The challenges include cash prizes totaling $50,000 and the winning teams will be invited to present their methods at the Second Landmark Recognition Workshop at CVPR 2019.

Open Sourcing our Model
To foster research reproducibility and help push the field of instance recognition forward, we are also releasing open-source code for our new technique, called Detect-to-Retrieve (which will be presented as a paper in CVPR 2019). This new method leverages bounding boxes from an object detection model to give extra weight to image regions containing the class of interest, which significantly improves accuracy. The model we are releasing is trained on a subset of 86k images from the original Google-Landmarks dataset that were annotated with landmark bounding boxes. We are making these annotations available along with the original dataset here.

We invite researchers and ML enthusiasts to participate in the Landmark Recognition 2019 and Landmark Retrieval 2019 Kaggle challenges and to join the Second Landmark Recognition Workshop at CVPR 2019. We hope that this dataset will help advance the state-of-the-art in instance recognition and image retrieval. The data is being made available via the Common Visual Data Foundation.

Acknowledgments
The core contributors to this project are Andre Araujo, Bingyi Cao, Jack Sim and Tobias Weyand. We would like to thank our team members Daniel Kim, Emily Manoogian, Nicole Maffeo, and Hartwig Adam for their kind help. Thanks also to Marvin Teichmann and Menglong Zhu for their contribution to collecting the landmark bounding boxes and developing the Detect-to-Retrieve technique. We would like to thank Will Cukierski and Maggie Demkin for their help organizing the Kaggle challenge, Elan Hourticolon-Retzler, Yuan Gao, Qin Guo, Gang Huang, Yan Wang, Zhicheng Zheng for their help with data collection, Tsung-Yi Lin for his support with CVDF hosting, as well as our CVPR workshop co-organizers Bohyung Han, Shih-Fu Chang, Ondrej Chum, Torsten Sattler, Giorgos Tolias, and Xu Zhang. We have great appreciation for the Wikimedia Commons Community and their volunteer contributions to an invaluable photographic archive of the world’s cultural heritage. And finally, we’d like to thank the Common Visual Data Foundation for hosting the dataset.

Source: Google AI Blog


Announcing the 6th Fine-Grained Visual Categorization Workshop



In recent years, fine-grained visual recognition competitions (FGVCs), such as the iNaturalist species classification challenge and the iMaterialist product attribute recognition challenge, have spurred progress in the development of image classification models focused on detection of fine-grained visual details in both natural and man-made objects. Whereas traditional image classification competitions focus on distinguishing generic categories (e.g., car vs. butterfly), the FGVCs go beyond entry level categories to focus on subtle differences in object parts and attributes. For example, rather than pursuing methods that can distinguish categories, such as “bird”, we are interested in identifying subcategories such as “indigo bunting” or “lazuli bunting.”

Previous challenges attracted a large number of talented participants who developed innovative new models for image recognition, with more than 500 teams competing at FGVC5 at CVPR 2018. FGVC challenges have also inspired new methods such as domain-specific transfer learning and estimating test-time priors, which have helped fine-grained recognition tasks reach state-of-the-art performance on several benchmarking datasets.

In order to further spur progress in FGVC research, we are proud to sponsor and co-organize the 6th annual workshop on Fine-Grained Visual Categorization (FGVC6), to be held on June 17th in Long Beach, CA at CVPR 2019. This workshop brings together experts in computer vision with specialists focusing on biodiversity, botany, fashion, and the arts, to address the challenges of applying fine-grained visual categorization to real-life settings.

This Year’s Challenges
This year there will be a wide variety of competition topics, each highlighting unique challenges of fine-grained visual categorization, including an updated iNaturalist challenge, fashion & products, wildlife camera traps, food, butterflies & moths, fashion design, and cassava leaf disease. We are also delighted to introduce two new partnerships with world class institutions—The Metropolitan Museum of Art for the iMet Collection challenge and the New York Botanical Garden for the Herbarium challenge.
The FGVC workshop at CVPR focuses on subordinate categories, including (from left to right, top to bottom) animal species from wildlife camera traps, retail products, fashion attributes, cassava leaf disease, Melastomataceae species from herbarium sheets, animal species from citizen science photos, butterfly and moth species, cuisine of dishes, and fine-grained attributes for museum art objects.
In the iMet Collection challenge, participants compete to train models on artistic attributes including object presence, culture, content, theme, and geographic origin. The Metropolitan Museum of Art provided a large training dataset for this task based on subject matter experts’ descriptions of their museum collections. This dataset highlights the challenge of inferring fine-grained attributes that are grounded in the visual context indirectly (e.g., period, culture, medium).
A diverse sample of images included in the iMet Collection challenge dataset. Images were taken from the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s public domain dataset.
The iMet Collection challenge is also noteworthy for its status as the first image-based Kernels-only competition, a recently introduced option on Kaggle that levels the playing field for data scientists who might not otherwise have access to adequate computational resources. Kernel competitions provide all participants with the same hardware allowances, giving rise to a more balanced competition. Moreover, the winning models tend to be simpler than their counterparts in other competitions, since the participants must work within the compute constraints imposed by the Kernels platform. At the time of writing, the iMet Collection challenge has over 250 participating teams.

In the Herbarium challenge, researchers are invited to tackle the problem of classifying species from the flowering plant family Melastomataceae. This challenge is distinguished from the iNaturalist competition, since the included images depict dried specimens preserved on herbarium sheets, exclusively. Herbarium sheets are essential to plant science, as they not only preserve the key details of the plants for identification and DNA analysis, but also provide a rare perspective into plant ecology in a historical context. As the world’s second largest herbarium, NYBG’s Steere Herbarium collection contributed a dataset of over 46,000 specimens for this year’s challenge.
In the Herbarium challenge, participants will identify species from the flowering plant family Melastomataceae. The New York Botanical Garden (NYBG) provided a dataset of over 46,000 herbarium specimens including over 680 species. Images used with permission of the NYBG.
Every one of this year’s challenges requires deep engagement with subject matter experts, in addition to institutional coordination. By teeing up image recognition challenges in a standard format, the FGVC workshop paves the way for technology transfer from the top of the Kaggle leaderboards into the hands of everyday users via mobile apps such as Seek by iNaturalist and Merlin Bird ID. We anticipate the techniques developed by our competition participants will not only push the frontier of fine-grained recognition, but also be beneficial for applying machine vision to advance scientific exploration and curatorial studies.

Invitation to Participate
We invite teams to participate in these competitions to help advance the state-of-the-art in fine-grained image recognition. Deadlines for entry into the competitions range from May 26 to June 3, depending on the challenge. The results of these competitions will be presented at the FGVC6 workshop at CVPR 2019, and will provide broad exposure to the top performing teams. We are excited to encourage the community's development of more accurate and broadly impactful algorithms in the field of fine-grained visual categorization!

Acknowledgements
We’d like to thank our colleagues and friends on the FGVC6 organizing committee for working together to advance this important area. At Google we would like to thank Hartwig Adam, Chenyang Zhang, Yulong Liu, Kiat Chuan Tan, Mikhail Sirotenko, Denis Brulé, Cédric Deltheil, Timnit Gebru, Ernest Mwebaze, Weijun Wang, Grace Chu, Jack Sim, Andrew Howard, R.V. Guha, Srikanth Belwadi, Tanya Birch, Katherine Chou, Maggie Demkin, Elizabeth Park, and Will Cukierski.

Source: Google AI Blog