Tag Archives: latest

The Third Beta of Android 15

Posted by Matthew McCullough – VP of Product Management, Android Developer


Android 15 logo

Today's Android 15 Beta 3 release takes Android 15 to Platform Stability, which means that the developer APIs and all app-facing behaviors are now final for you to review and integrate into your apps, and apps targeting Android 15 can be made available in Google Play. Thank you for all of your continued feedback in getting us to this milestone.

Android 15 continues our work to build a platform that helps improve your productivity while giving you new capabilities to produce superior media and AI experiences, take advantage of device form factors, minimize battery impact, maximize smooth app performance, and protect user privacy and security, all on the most diverse lineup of devices.

Android delivers enhancements and new features year-round, and your feedback on the Android beta program plays a key role in helping Android continuously improve. The Android 15 developer site has lots more information about the beta, including how to get it on devices and the release timeline. We’re looking forward to hearing what you think, and thank you in advance for your continued help in making Android a platform that works for everyone.

New in Android 15 Beta 3

Android 15 Production Timeline

Given where we are in the release cycle, there are just a few new things in the Android 15 Beta 3 release for you to consider when developing your apps.

Improved user experience for passkeys and Credential Manager

Users will be able to sign-into apps that target Android 15 using passkeys in a single step with facial recognition, fingerprint, or screen lock. If they accidentally dismiss the prompt to use a passkey to sign-in, they will be able to see the passkey or other Credential Manager suggestions in autofill conditional user interfaces, such as keyboard suggestions or dropdowns.

Single-step UI experience

Single step UI experience demonstrating before on the left which required two taps and after on the right which only requires one

Fallback UI experience

Fallback UI experience showing password, passkey, and sign in with Google options across Keyboard chips and on screen dropdown options

Credential Provider integration for the single-step UI

Registered credential providers will be able to use upcoming APIs in the Jetpack androidx.credentials library to hand off the user authentication mechanism to the system UI, enabling the single-step authentication experience on devices running Android 15.

App integration for autofill fallback UI

When you present the user with a selector at sign-in using Credential Manager APIs, you can associate a Credential Manager request with a given view, such as a username or a password field. When the user focuses on one of these views, Credential Manager gets an associated request, and provider-aggregated resulting credentials are displayed in autofill fallback UIs, such as inline or dropdown suggestions.

WebSQL deprecated in Android WebView

The setDatabaseEnabled and getDatabaseEnabled WebSettings are now deprecated. These settings are used for WebSQL support inside Webview. WebSQL is removed in Chrome and is now deprecated on Android Webview. These methods will become a no-op on all Android versions in the next 12 months.

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) encourages apps needing web databases to adopt Web Storage API technologies like localStorage and sessionStorage, or IndexedDB. SQLite Wasm in the browser backed by the Origin Private File System outlines a replacement set of technologies based on the SQLite database, compiled to Web Assembly (Wasm), and backed by the origin private file system to enable more direct migration of WebSQL code.

Get your apps, libraries, tools, and game engines ready!

If you develop an SDK, library, tool, or game engine, it's even more important to prepare any necessary updates now to prevent your downstream app and game developers from being blocked by compatibility issues and allow them to target the latest SDK features. Please let your developers know if updates are needed to fully support Android 15.

Testing your app involves installing your production app using Google Play or other means onto a device or emulator running Android 15 Beta 3. Work through all your app's flows and look for functional or UI issues. Review the behavior changes to focus your testing. Each release of Android contains platform changes that improve privacy, security, and overall user experience, and these changes can affect your apps. Here are several changes to focus on that apply even if you don't yet target Android 15:

    • Support for 16KB page sizes - Beginning with Android 15, Android supports devices that are configured to use a page size of 16 KB. If your app or library uses the NDK, either directly or indirectly through an SDK, then you will likely need to rebuild your app for it to work on these devices.
    • Private space support - Private space is a new feature in Android 15 that lets users create a separate space on their device where they can keep sensitive apps away from prying eyes, under an additional layer of authentication.

Remember to thoroughly exercise libraries and SDKs that your app is using during your compatibility testing. You may need to update to current SDK versions or reach out to the developer for help if you encounter any issues.

Once you’ve published the Android 15-compatible version of your app, you can start the process to update your app's targetSdkVersion. Review the behavior changes that apply when your app targets Android 15 and use the compatibility framework to help quickly detect issues.

Get started with Android 15

Today's beta release has everything you need to try out Android 15 features, test your apps, and give us feedback. Now that we’re in the beta phase, you can check here to get information about enrolling your device; Enrolling supported Pixel devices will deliver this and future Android Beta updates over-the-air. If you don’t have a supported device, you can use the 64-bit system images with the Android Emulator in Android Studio. If you're already in the Android 14 QPR beta program on a supported device, you'll automatically get updated to Android 15 Beta 3.

For the best development experience with Android 15, we recommend that you use the latest version of Android Studio Koala. Once you’re set up, here are some of the things you should do:

    • Try the new features and APIs - your feedback is critical during the early part of the developer preview and beta program. Report issues in our tracker on the feedback page.
    • Test your current app for compatibility - learn whether your app is affected by changes in Android 15; install your app onto a device or emulator running Android 15 and extensively test it.
    • Update your app with the Android SDK Upgrade Assistant - The latest Android Studio Koala Feature Drop release now covers android 15 API changes and walks you through the steps to upgrade your targetSdkVersion with the Android SDK Upgrade Assistant.
Android SDK Upgrade Assistant in Android Studio Koala Feature Drop
Android SDK Upgrade Assistant in Android Studio Koala Feature Drop

We’ll update the beta system images and SDK regularly throughout the remainder of the Android 15 release cycle. Read more here.

For complete information, visit the Android 15 developer site.


Java and OpenJDK are trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates.

All trademarks, logos and brand names are the property of their respective owners.

The Second Beta of Android 15

Posted by Dave Burke, VP of Engineering

Android 15 logo

Today we're releasing the second beta of Android 15, which continues our work to build a platform that helps improve your productivity, minimize battery impact, maximize smooth app performance, give users a premium device experience, protect user privacy and security, and make your app accessible to as many people as possible — all in a vibrant and diverse ecosystem of devices, silicon partners, and carriers.

Android delivers enhancements and new features year-round, and your feedback on the Android beta program plays a key role in helping Android continuously improve. The Android 15 developer site has lots more information about the beta, including downloads for Pixel, and the release timeline. We’re looking forward to hearing what you think, and thank you in advance for your continued help in making Android a platform that works for everyone.

Now available on more devices

Diagram showing Android 15 compatible partners

The Android 15 beta is now available on handset, tablet, and foldable form factors from partners including Honor, iQOO, Lenovo, Nothing, OnePlus, OPPO, Realme, Sharp, Tecno, vivo, and Xiaomi, so there are so many more devices for you to test your app on, and so many more users that can run your app on the Android 15 beta.

Making Android more efficient

We are continuing to optimize the platform to improve the quality, speed and battery life of Android devices.

Foreground services changes

Foreground services keep apps running in an active state so they can do something critical and user-visible, often at the expense of battery life. In Android 15 Beta 2, the dataSync and mediaProcessing foreground service types now have a ~6 hour timeout, after which the system calls Android 15's new Service.onTimeout(int, int) method. At this point, the service is no longer considered a foreground service. If the service does not call Service.stopSelf() in response to the timeout, it will get stopped with a failure.

Beta 2 also adds new requirements for starting foreground services while the app is running in the background. - If your foreground service relies on the SYSTEM_ALERT_WINDOW permission exemption for background start, you are now required to have a visible overlay when targeting Android 15.

For battery-efficient best practices, debugging network and power usage, and detail on how we're improving battery efficiency of background work in Android 15 and recent versions of Android, see the "Improving battery efficiency of background work on Android" I/O talk.

Upcoming required support for 16 KB page sizes

Android 15 adds support for devices that use larger page sizes, with support for 16 KB pages in addition to the standard 4 KB pages. If your app uses any NDK libraries, either directly or indirectly through an SDK, then you will likely need to simply rebuild your app for it to work on these 16 KB page size devices.

Devices with larger page sizes can have improved performance for memory-intensive workloads. While our testing may not be representative of all devices in the ecosystem, here are a some of the performance gains we identified in our initial testing of devices configured with 16KB page sizes:

    • Lower app launch times while the system is under memory pressure: 3.16% lower on average, with more significant improvements (up to 30%) for some apps that we tested
    • Reduced power draw during app launch: 4.56% reduction on average
    • Faster camera launch: 4.48% faster hot starts on average, and 6.60% faster cold starts on average
    • Improved system boot time: improved by 1.5% (approximately 0.8 seconds) on average

As device manufacturers continue to build devices with larger amounts of physical memory (RAM), many of these devices will adopt 16 KB (and eventually greater) page sizes to optimize the device's performance. Adding support for 16 KB page size devices enables your app to run on these devices and helps your app benefit from the associated performance improvements. We plan to make 16 KB page compatibility required for app uploads to Play Store next year.

To help you add support for your app, we've provided guidance on how to check if your app is impacted, how to rebuild your app (if applicable), and how to test your app in a 16 KB environment using emulators (including Android 15 system images for the Android Emulator).

Modernizing Android's GPU access

Vulkan logo

Android hardware has evolved quite a bit from the early days where the core OS would run on a single CPU and GPUs were accessed using APIs based on fixed-function pipelines. The Vulkan graphics API has been available in the NDK since Android 7.0 (API level 24) with a lower-level abstraction that better reflects modern GPU hardware, scales better to support multiple CPU cores, and offers reduced CPU driver overhead — leading to improved app and game performance. Vulkan is supported by all modern game engines.

Vulkan is Android’s preferred interface to the GPU. Therefore, Android 15 includes ANGLE as an optional layer for running OpenGL ES on top of Vulkan. Moving to ANGLE will standardize the Android OpenGL implementation for improved compatibility, and, in some cases, improved performance. You can test out your OpenGL ES app stability and performance with ANGLE using the "Developer options → Experimental: Enable ANGLE" setting in Android 15.

The Android ANGLE on Vulkan roadmap

The Android ANGLE on Vulkan roadmap

As part of streamlining our GPU stack, going forward we will be shipping ANGLE as the GL system driver on more new devices, with the future expectation that OpenGL/ES will be only available through ANGLE. That being said, we plan to continue support for OpenGL ES on all devices.

Recommended next steps: Use the developer options to select the ANGLE driver for OpenGL ES and test. For new projects, we strongly encourage using Vulkan for C/C++.

Modern graphics

Android 15 continues our modernization of Android's Canvas graphics system with new functionality:

    • Matrix44, provides a 4x4 matrix for transforming coordinates that should be used when you want to manipulate the canvas in 3D.
    • clipShader intersects the current clip with the specified shader, while clipOutShader sets the clip to the difference of the current clip and the shader, each treating the shader as an alpha mask. This supports the drawing of complex shapes efficiently.

More efficient AV1 software decoding

Android 14 logo

dav1d, the popular AV1 software decoder from VideoLAN is now available for Android devices not supporting AV1 decode in hardware. It is up to 3x more performant than the legacy AV1 software decoder, enabling HD AV1 playback for more users, including some low and mid tier devices.

For now, your app needs to opt-in to using dav1d by invoking it by name "c2.android.av1-dav1d.decoder". It will be made the default AV1 software decoder in a subsequent update . This support is standardized and backported to Android 11 devices that receive Google Play system updates.

For more on the latest features and developer solutions for Android media and camera, see the "Building modern Android media and camera experiences" I/O talk.

A more private, secure Android

We're always looking to give users more transparency and control over their data while enhancing the core security features of the platform. See the "Safeguarding user security on Android" I/O talk for more of what we're doing to improve user safeguards and protect your app against new threats.

Private space

Android 14 logo

Private space allows users to create a separate space on their device where they can keep sensitive apps away from prying eyes, under an additional layer of authentication. Private space uses a separate user profile. When private space is locked by the user, the profile is paused, i.e. the apps are no longer active. The user can choose to use the device lock or a separate lock factor for private space. Private space apps show up in a separate container in the launcher, and are hidden from the recents view, notifications, settings, and from other apps when private space is locked. User generated and downloaded content (media, files) and accounts are separated between the private space and the main space. The system sharesheet and the photo picker can be used to give apps access to content across spaces when private space is unlocked. There is a known issue with private space in Beta 2 that affects home screen apps; you can find out more in the Beta 2 release notes. We'll have an update in the coming days, so you may wish to wait until then to test your app with private space to make sure it works as expected.

Selected photos access improvement

It is now possible for apps to highlight only the most recently selected photos and videos when partial access to media permissions is granted. This can improve the user experience for apps that frequently request access to photos and videos. This can be achieved by enabling the QUERY_ARG_LATEST_SELECTION_ONLY argument when querying MediaStore through ContentResolver.

valexternalContentUri = MediaStore.Files.getContentUri("external")

val mediaColumns = arrayOf(
   FileColumns._ID,
   FileColumns.DISPLAY_NAME,
   FileColumns.MIME_TYPE,
)

val queryArgs = bundleOf(
   // Return only items from the last selection (selected photos access)
   QUERY_ARG_LATEST_SELECTION_ONLY to true,
   // Sort returned items chronologically based on when they were added to the device's storage
   QUERY_ARG_SQL_SORT_ORDER to "${FileColumns.DATE_ADDED} DESC",
   QUERY_ARG_SQL_SELECTION to "${FileColumns.MEDIA_TYPE} = ? OR ${FileColumns.MEDIA_TYPE} = ?",
   QUERY_ARG_SQL_SELECTION_ARGS to arrayOf(
       FileColumns.MEDIA_TYPE_IMAGE.toString(),
       FileColumns.MEDIA_TYPE_VIDEO.toString()
   )
)

val cursor = contentResolver.query(externalContentUri, mediaColumns, queryArgs, null)

Permission checks on content URIs

Android 15 introduces a new set of APIs that perform permission checks on content URIs. They include:

Secured background activity launches

Android 15 protects users from malicious apps and gives them more control over their devices by adding changes that prevent malicious background apps from bringing other apps to the foreground, elevating their privileges, and abusing user interaction. Background activity launches have been restricted since Android 10.

Malicious apps within the same task can launch another app's activity, then overlay themselves on top, creating the illusion of being that app. This "task hijacking" attack bypasses current background launch restrictions because it all occurs within the same visible task. To mitigate this risk, we've added a flag that blocks apps that don't match the top UID on the stack from launching activities. To opt in for all of your app's activities, update the allowCrossUidActivitySwitchFromBelow attribute in your app's AndroidManifest.xml file:

<application android:allowCrossUidActivitySwitchFromBelow="false" >

Once your app has opted into the new protection, specific activities designed to be shared can be opted-out using this API within the Activity:

public void onCreate(Bundle bundle) {
super.onCreate(bundle);
setAllowCrossUidActivitySwitchFromBelow(true);
...
}

Learn more about restrictions on starting activities from the background.

Safer Intents

Android 15 introduces new security measures to make intents safer and more robust. These changes are aimed at preventing potential vulnerabilities and misuse of intents that can be exploited by malicious apps. There are two main improvements to the security of intents in Android 15:

    • Match target intent-filters: Intents that target specific components must accurately match the target's intent-filter specifications. If you send an intent to launch another app's activity, the target intent component needs to align with the receiving activity's declared intent-filters.
    • Intents must have actions: Intents without an action will no longer match any intent-filters. This means that intents used to start activities or services must have a clearly defined action.

Important: These improvements will be part of Strict Mode. If you would like to try them out please add the following method:

public void onCreate() {
    StrictMode.setVmPolicy(VmPolicy.Builder()
        .detectUnsafeIntentLaunch()
        .build());
    ...

Increased minimum target SDK version from 23 to 24

Android 15 increases the minimum targetSdkVersion required to install apps from 23 to 24, building on the previous minimum target SDK change from Android 14, Outdated apps often lack the latest security protections, making devices and data vulnerable. Requiring apps to meet modern API levels helps to ensure better security and privacy.

If you try to install an app that targets a lower API level than 24, you'll see an error raised in Logcat: INSTALL_FAILED_DEPRECATED_SDK_VERSION: App package must target at least SDK version 24, but found 7.

A premium device experience

Android 15 includes features that help your apps improve the experience of using an Android device, including smoother transitions, a more helpful UI, updates for large-screen devices, and more beautiful options for designers.

Improved large screen multitasking

GIF showing example of large screen multitasking

Android 15 beta 2 gives users better ways to multitask on large screen devices. For example, users can pin the taskbar on screen to quickly switch between apps or save their favorite split-screen app combinations for quick access. This means that making sure your app is adaptive is more important than ever. Google I/O has sessions on Building adaptive Android apps and Building UI with the Material 3 adaptive library that can help, and our documentation has more to help you Design for large screens.

Window Insets

In addition to edge-to-edge enforcement, when targeting SDK 35+ in Android 15 Configuration.screenWidthDp and screenHeightDp, now include the depth of the system bars. While these values may still be used for resource selection (e.g. res/layout-h500dp), using them for layout calculations is discouraged.

Picture-in-Picture

Android 15 introduces new changes in Picture-in-Picture (PiP) ensuring an even smoother transition when entering into PiP mode. This will be beneficial for apps having UI elements overlaid on top of their main UI, which goes into PiP. Currently, onPictureInPictureModeChanged is used to define logic that toggles the visibility of the overlaid UI elements. This callback is triggered when the PiP enter or exit animation is completed. Starting from Android 15, we are introducing a new state in the PictureInPictureUiState class. The onPictureInPictureUiStateChanged callback will be invoked with isTransitioningToPip() as soon as the PiP enter animation starts and the app can hide the overlaid UI elements.

override fun onPictureInPictureUiStateChanged(pipState: PictureInPictureUiState) {
    if (pipState.isTransitioningToPip()) {
	      // Hide UI elements
        }
    }

override fun onPictureInPictureModeChanged(isInPictureInPictureMode: Boolean) {
    if (isInPictureInPictureMode) {
	      // Unhide UI elements
        }
    }

This quick visibility toggle of irrelevant UI elements (for a PiP window), will ensure a smoother and flicker free PiP enter animation.

Richer Widget Previews with Generated Previews

Example of widget previews with generated previews

Make your widget stand out by showing a personalized preview. Apps targeting Android 15 can provide Remote Views to the Widget Picker, so they can update the content in the picker to be more representative of what the user will see. Apps may use the AppWidgetManager setWidgetPreview, getWidgetPreview and removeWidgetPreview methods to update the appearance of their widgets with up to date and personalized information.

Predictive Back

Android 14 logo

Predictive back provides a smoother, more intuitive navigation experience while using gesture navigation, leveraging built-in animations to inform users where their actions will take them to reduce unexpected outcomes. In Android 15, predictive back will no longer be behind a developer option, so system animations such as back-to-home, cross-task, and cross-activity will appear for apps that have properly migrated.

Set VibrationEffect for notification channels

Android 15 beta 2 now supports setting rich vibrations for incoming notifications by channel using NotificationChannel.setVibrationEffect, so your users can distinguish between different types of notifications without having to look at their device.

New data types for Health Connect

Health Connect, the centralized way for users to control and manage access to their fitness data, is adding support for additional data types to support even more health and fitness use cases. This release has 2 new data types: skin temperature and training plans.

Skin temperature tracking allows users to store and share more accurate temperature data from a wearable or other tracking device.

Training plans are structured workout plans to help a user achieve their fitness goals. Training plans support includes:

"Choose how you're addressed" system preference

Initially only in French, but expanding soon to additional gendered languages, users can customize how they are addressed by the Android system with a grammatical gender preference. The new setting can be found in the system language settings: Settings → System → Languages & Input → System languages → Choose how you’re addressed.

French grammatical gender preference
French grammatical gender preference

An example of where this preference changes the string being shown
An example of where this preference changes the string being shown

Modern internationalization via ICU 74

Android 15 Beta 2 includes API-related updates from ICU 74. ICU 74 contains updates from Unicode 15.1, including new characters, emoji, security mechanisms and corresponding APIs and implementations, as well as updates to CLDR 44 locale data with new locales and various additions and corrections.

CJK Variable Font

Starting from Android 15, the font file for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages, NotoSansCJK, is now a variable font. Variable fonts open up new possibilities for creative typography in CJK languages. Designers can explore a broader range of styles and create visually striking layouts that were previously difficult or impossible to achieve.

Examples of variable font for Chinese, Hapanese, and Korean languages with NotoSansCJK

New Japanese Hentaigana Font

In Android 15, a new font file for old Japanese Hiragana (known as Hentaigana) is bundled by default. The unique shapes of Hentaigana characters can add a distinctive flair to artwork or design while also helping to preserve accurate transmission and understanding of ancient Japanese documents.

Example of the new font file for Hentaigana characters

Avoiding clipped text

Some cursive fonts or language characters that have complex shaping may draw the letters in the previous or next character’s area. Such letters may be clipped at the beginning or ending position. Starting in Android 15, TextView allocates additional width for such letters and puts extra padding to the left.

Because this changes how the TextView decides the width, TextView allocates more width by default if the applications target Android 15 or later. You can enable or disable it by calling setUseBoundsForWidth API on TextView. Because adding left padding may cause a misalignment of existing layouts, the padding is not added by default even when targeting Android 15 or later.

To add extra padding to prevent clipping, call setShiftDrawingOffsetForStartOverhang.

Example of clipped text in English
<TextView
    android:fontFamily="cursive"
    android:text="java" />

Example of nonclipped text in English
<TextView
    android:fontFamily="cursive"
    android:text="java"
    android:useBoundsForWidth="true"
    android:shiftDrawingOffsetForStartOverhang="true" />

Example of clipped text in Hindi
<TextView
    android:text="คอมพิวเตอร์" />

Example of nonclipped text in Hindi
<TextView
    android:text="คอมพิวเตอร์"
    android:useBoundsForWidth="true"
    android:shiftDrawingOffsetForStartOverhang="true" />

App compatibility

If you haven't yet tested your app for compatibility with Android 15, now is the time to do it, with many more devices entering the program. In the weeks ahead, you can expect more users to try your app on Android 15 and raise issues they find.

To test for compatibility, install your published app on a device or emulator running Android 15 beta and work through all of your app's flows. Review the behavior changes to focus your testing. After you've resolved any issues, publish an update as soon as possible.

To give you more time to plan for app compatibility work, we’re letting you know our Platform Stability milestone well in advance.

Timeline for Platform Stability milestone rollout

At this milestone, we’ll deliver final SDK/NDK APIs and also final internal APIs and app-facing system behaviors. We’re expecting to reach Platform Stability in June 2024, and from that time you’ll have several months before the official release to do your final testing. The release timeline details are here.

Get started with Android 15

Today's beta release has everything you need to try the Android 15 features, test your apps, and give us feedback. Now that we’re in the beta phase, you can check here to get information about enrolling your device; Enrolling supported Pixel devices will get this and future Android Beta updates over-the-air. If you don’t have a supported device, you can use the 64-bit system images with the Android Emulator in Android Studio. If you're already in the Android 14 QPR beta program on a supported device, you'll automatically get updated to Android 15 Beta 2.

For the best development experience with Android 15, we recommend that you use the latest version of Android Studio Koala. Once you’re set up, here are some of the things you should do:

    • Try the new features and APIs - your feedback is critical during the early part of the developer preview and beta program. Report issues in our tracker on the feedback page.
    • Test your current app for compatibility - learn whether your app is affected by changes in Android 15; install your app onto a device or emulator running Android 15 and extensively test it.

We’ll update the beta system images and SDK regularly throughout the Android 15 release cycle. Read more here.

For complete information, visit the Android 15 developer site.


Java and OpenJDK are trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates.

OpenGL is a registered trademark and the OpenGL ES logo is a trademark of Hewlett Packard Enterprise used by permission by Khronos.

Vulkan and the Vulkan logo are registered trademarks of the Khronos Group Inc.

VideoLAN cone Copyright (c) 1996-2010 VideoLAN. This logo or a modified version may be used or modified by anyone to refer to the VideoLAN project or any product developed by the VideoLAN team, but does not indicate endorsement by the project.

All trademarks, logos and brand names are the property of their respective owners.

The First Beta of Android 15

Posted by Dave Burke, VP of Engineering

Android 14 logo


Today we're releasing the first beta of Android 15. With the progress we've made refining the features and stability of Android 15, it's time to open the experience up to both developers and early adopters, so you can now enroll any supported Pixel device here to get this and future Android 15 Beta and feature drop Beta updates over-the-air.

Android 15 continues our work to build a platform that helps improve your productivity, give users a premium app experience, protect user privacy and security, and make your app accessible to as many people as possible — all in a vibrant and diverse ecosystem of devices, silicon partners, and carriers.

Android delivers enhancements and new features year-round, and your feedback on the Android beta program plays a key role in helping Android continuously improve. The Android 15 developer site has lots more information about the beta, including downloads for Pixel and the release timeline. We’re looking forward to hearing what you think, and thank you in advance for your continued help in making Android a platform that works for everyone.

We’ll have lots more to share as we move through the release cycle, and be sure to tune into Google I/O where you can dive deeper into topics that interest you with over 100 sessions, workshops, codelabs, and demos.

Edge-to-edge

Apps targeting Android 15 are displayed edge-to-edge by default on Android 15 devices. This means that apps no longer need to explicitly call Window.setDecorFitsSystemWindows(false) or enableEdgeToEdge() to show their content behind the system bars, although we recommend continuing to call enableEdgeToEdge() to get the edge-to-edge experience on earlier Android releases.

To assist your app with going edge-to-edge, many of the Material 3 composables handle insets for you, based on how the composables are placed in your app according to the Material specifications.

a side-by-side comparison of App targets SDK 34 (left) and App targets SDK 35 (right) demonstrating edge-to-edge on an Android 15 device
On the left: App targets SDK 34 (Android 14) and is not edge-to-edge on an Android 15 device. On the right: App targets SDK 35 (Android 15) and is edge-to-edge on an Android 15 device. Note the Material 3 TopAppBar is automatically protecting the status bar, which would otherwise be transparent by default.

The system bars are transparent or translucent and content will draw behind by default. Refer to "Handle overlaps using insets" (Views) or Window insets in Compose to see how to prevent important touch targets from being hidden by the system bars.

Smoother NFC experiences - part 2

Android 15 is working to make the tap to pay experience more seamless and reliable while continuing to support Android's robust NFC app ecosystem. In addition to the observe mode changes from Android 15 developer preview 2, apps can now register a fingerprint on supported devices so they can be notified of polling loop activity, which allows for smooth operation with multiple NFC-aware applications.

Inter-character justification

Starting with Android 15, text can be justified utilizing letter spacing by using JUSTIFICATION_MODE_INTER_CHARACTER. Inter-word justification was first introduced in Android O, but inter-character solves for languages that use the white space for segmentation, e.g. Chinese, Japanese, etc.

JUSTIFICATION_MODE_NONE
image shows how japanese kanji (top) and english alphabet characters (bottom) appear with JUSTIFICATION_MODE_NONE
JUSTIFICATION_MODE_INTER_WORD
image shows how japanese kanji (top) and english alphabet characters (bottom) appear with JUSTIFICATION_MODE_INTER_WORD
JUSTIFICATION_MODE_INTER_CHARACTER
image shows how japanese kanji (top) and english alphabet characters (bottom) appear with JUSTIFICATION_MODE_INTER_WORD

App archiving

Android and Google Play announced support for app archiving last year, allowing users to free up space by partially removing infrequently used apps from the device that were published using Android App Bundle on Google Play. Android 15 now includes OS level support for app archiving and unarchiving, making it easier for all app stores to implement it.

Apps with the REQUEST_DELETE_PACKAGES permission can call the PackageInstaller requestArchive method to request archiving a currently installed app package, which removes the APK and any cached files, but persists user data. Archived apps are returned as displayable apps through the LauncherApps APIs; users will see a UI treatment to highlight that those apps are archived. If a user taps on an archived app, the responsible installer will get a request to unarchive it, and the restoration process can be monitored by the ACTION_PACKAGE_ADDED broadcast.

App-managed profiling

Android 15 includes the all new ProfilingManager class, which allows you to collect profiling information from within your app. We're planning to wrap this with an Android Jetpack API that will simplify construction of profiling requests, but the core API will allow the collection of heap dumps, heap profiles, stack sampling, and more. It provides a callback to your app with a supplied tag to identify the output file, which is delivered to your app's files directory. The API does rate limiting to minimize the performance impact.

Better Braille

In Android 15, we've made it possible for TalkBack to support Braille displays that are using the HID standard over both USB and secure Bluetooth.

This standard, much like the one used by mice and keyboards, will help Android support a wider range of Braille displays over time.

Key management for end-to-end encryption

We are introducing the E2eeContactKeysManager in Android 15, which facilitates end-to-end encryption (E2EE) in your Android apps by providing an OS-level API for the storage of cryptographic public keys.

The E2eeContactKeysManager is designed to integrate with the platform contacts app to give users a centralized way to manage and verify their contacts' public keys.

Secured background activity launches

Android 15 brings additional changes to prevent malicious background apps from bringing other apps to the foreground, elevating their privileges, and abusing user interaction, aiming to protect users from malicious apps and give them more control over their devices. Background activity launches have been restricted since Android 10.

App compatibility

With Android 15 now in beta, we're opening up access to early-adopter users as well as developers, so if you haven't yet tested your app for compatibility with Android 15, now is the time to do it. In the weeks ahead, you can expect more users to try your app on Android 15 and raise issues they find.

To test for compatibility, install your published app on a device or emulator running Android 15 beta and work through all of your app's flows. Review the behavior changes to focus your testing. After you've resolved any issues, publish an update as soon as possible.

To give you more time to plan for app compatibility work, we’re letting you know our Platform Stability milestone well in advance.

Android 15 release timeline

At this milestone, we’ll deliver final SDK/NDK APIs and also final internal APIs and app-facing system behaviors. We’re expecting to reach Platform Stability in June 2024, and from that time you’ll have several months before the official release to do your final testing. The release timeline details are here.

Get started with Android 15

Today's beta release has everything you need to try the Android 15 features, test your apps, and give us feedback. Now that we've entered the beta phase, you can enroll any supported Pixel device here to get this and future Android Beta updates over-the-air. If you don’t have a Pixel device, you can use the 64-bit system images with the Android Emulator in Android Studio. If you're already in the Android 14 QPR beta program on a supported device, or have installed the developer preview, you'll automatically get updated to Android 15 Beta 1.

For the best development experience with Android 15, we recommend that you use the latest version of Android Studio Jellyfish (or more recent Jellyfish+ versions). Once you’re set up, here are some of the things you should do:

    • Try the new features and APIs - your feedback is critical during the early part of the developer preview and beta program. Report issues in our tracker on the feedback page.
    • Test your current app for compatibility - learn whether your app is affected by changes in Android 15; install your app onto a device or emulator running Android 15 and extensively test it.

We’ll update the beta system images and SDK regularly throughout the Android 15 release cycle. Read more here.

For complete information, visit the Android 15 developer site.


Java and OpenJDK are trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates.

The Second Developer Preview of Android 15

Posted by Dave Burke, VP of Engineering

Android 14 logo


Today marks the second chapter of the Android 15 story with the release of Android 15 Developer Preview 2!

Android 15 continues our work to build a platform that helps improve your productivity while giving you new capabilities to produce superior media and AI experiences, take advantage of device form factors, minimize battery impact, maximize smooth app performance, and protect user privacy and security, all on the most diverse lineup of devices out there.

Android continues to add features enabling your apps to take advantage of premium device hardware, including the latest telecommunications features, high-end media capabilities, dazzling displays, foldable/filppable form factors, and AI processing.

Your feedback on the Android 15 Developer Preview and Beta program plays a key role in helping Android continuously improve. The Android 15 developer site has more information about the preview, including downloads for Pixel and detailed documentation about changes. This preview is just the beginning, and we’ll have lots more to share as we move through the release cycle. Thank you in advance for your help in making Android a platform that works for everyone.

Updating Android communications

Android 15 updates the platform to give your app access to the latest advances in communication.

Satellite support

Android 15 continues to extend platform support for satellite connectivity and includes some UI elements to ensure a consistent user experience across the satellite connectivity landscape.

screen schot of a mobile Android device showing notification when device connects to satellite
Notification when device connects to satellite

Apps can use ServiceState.isUsingNonTerrestrialNetwork() to detect when a device is connected to a satellite, giving them more awareness of why full network services may be unavailable. Additionally, Android 15 provides support for SMS/ MMS applications as well as preloaded RCS applications to use satellite connectivity for sending and receiving messages.

Smoother NFC experiences

Android 15 is working to make the tap to pay experience more seamless and reliable while continuing to support Android's robust NFC app ecosystem. On supported devices, apps can request the NfcAdapter enter observe mode, where the device will listen but not respond to NFC readers, sending the app's NFC service PollingFrame objects to process. The PollingFrame objects

can be used to auth ahead of the first communication to the NFC reader, allowing for a one tap transaction in many cases.

Developer productivity

While most of our work to improve your productivity centers around tools like Android Studio, Jetpack Compose, and the Android Jetpack libraries, we always look for ways in the platform to help you more easily realize your vision.

PDF Improvements

screen schot of a mobile Android device showing search enabled for PDF files
Enable searching embedded PDF files with updates to PdfRenderer

Android 15 Developer Preview 2 includes an early preview of substantial improvements to the PdfRenderer APIs, giving apps capabilities to incorporate advanced features such as rendering password-protected files, annotations, form editing, searching, and selection with copy. Linearized PDF optimizations are supported to speed local PDF viewing and reduce resource use.

The PdfRenderer has been moved to a module that can be updated using Google Play system updates independent of the platform release, and we're supporting these changes back to Android R by creating a compatible pre-Android 15 version of the API surface, called PdfRendererPreV.

We value your feedback on the enhancements we've made to the PdfRenderer API surface, and we plan to make it much easier to incorporate these APIs into your app with an upcoming Android Jetpack library. Stay tuned.

Automatic language switching refinements

Android 14 added on-device multi-language audio recognition with automatic switching between languages, but this can cause words to get dropped, especially when languages switch with less of a pause between the two utterances. Android 15 has added additional controls to allow apps to help tune this switching for their use case. EXTRA_LANGUAGE_SWITCH_INITIAL_ACTIVE_DURATION_TIME_MILLIS confines the automatic switching to the beginning of the audio session, while EXTRA_LANGUAGE_SWITCH_MATCH_SWITCHES deactivates the language switching after a defined number of switches. This can be a useful refinement, particularly if the expectation is that there will be a single language spoken during the session that should be autodetected.

Granular line break controls

Starting in Android 15, the TextView and the underlying line breaker can preserve the given portion of text in the same line to improve readability. You can take advantage of this line break customization by using the <nobreak> tag in string resources or createNoBreakSpan. Similarly, you can preserve words from hyphenation by using the <nohyphen> tag or createNoHyphenationSpan.

Examples and screenshots:

<resources>
    <string name="pixel8pro">The power and brains behind Pixel 8 Pro.</string>
</resources>
text reads: The power and brains behind Pixel 8 Pro.
<resources>
    <string name="pixel8pro">The power and brains behind <nobreak>Pixel 8 Pro.</nobreak></string>
</resources>
text reads: The power and brains behind Pixel 8 Pro.

Expanded IntentFilter Functionality

Android 15 builds-in support for more precise Intent resolution through UriRelativeFilterGroup, which contain a set of UriRelativeFilter objects that form a set of Intent matching rules that must each be satisfied, including URL query parameters, URL fragments, and blocking/exclusion rules. This helps applications better keep up with the dynamic demands of web-hosted deep links.

These rules can be defined in the AndroidManifest with the new <uri-relative-filter-group> tag which can optionally include an android:allow tag. These tags can contain tags that use existing data tag attributes as well as the new android:query and android:fragment attributes.

An example of the AndroidManifest syntax that will be supported:

<intent-filter>
  <action android:name="android.intent.action.VIEW" />
  <category android:name="android.intent.category.BROWSABLE" />
  <data android:scheme="http" />
  <data android:scheme="https" />
  <data android:domain="astore.com" />
  <uri-relative-filter-group>
    <data android:pathPrefix="/auth" />
    <data android:query="region=na" />
  </uri-relative-filter-group>
  <uri-relative-filter-group android:allow="false">
    <data android:pathPrefix="/auth" />
    <data android:query="mobileoptout=true" />
  </uri-relative-filter-group>
  <uri-relative-filter-group android:allow="false">
    <data android:pathPrefix="/auth" />
    <data android:fragmentPrefix="faq" />
  </uri-relative-filter-group>
</intent-filter>

More OpenJDK API support

Android 15 continues to add OpenJDK APIs. Developer Preview 2 includes support for additional math/strictmath methods, lots of util updates including sequenced collection/map/set, ByteBuffer support in Deflater, and security key updates. These APIs are updated on over a billion devices running Android 12+ through Android 15 through Google Play System updates so you can target the latest programming features.

Giving your app more flexibility on more screens

Android 15 gives your apps the support to get the most out of Android's form factors, including large screens, flippables, and foldables.

Cover screen support

Your app can declare a property that Android 15 uses to allow your Application or Activity to be presented on the small cover screens of supported flippable devices. These screens are too small to be considered as compatible targets for Android apps to run on, but your app can opt-in to supporting them, making your app available in more places.

A more private, secure Android

We're always looking to give users more transparency and control over their data while enhancing the core security features of the platform.

Screen record detection

Android 15 adds support for apps to detect that they are being recorded. A callback is invoked whenever the app transitions between being visible or invisible within a screen recording. (An app is considered visible if activities owned by the registering process's UID are being recorded.) This way, if your app is performing a sensitive operation, you can inform the user that they're being recorded.

val mCallback = Consumer<Int> { state ->
  if (state == SCREEN_RECORDING_STATE_VISIBLE) {
    // we're being recorded
  } else {
    // we’re not being recorded
  }
}

override fun onStart() {
   super.onStart()
   val initialState =
      windowManager.addScreenRecordingCallback(mainExecutor, mCallback)
   mCallback.accept(initialState)
}

override fun onStop() {
    super.onStop()
    windowManager.removeScreenRecordingCallback(mCallback)
}

Making Android more efficient

We are introducing new APIs that can help you gather insights about your apps, continuing to optimize the way background applications work, and providing APIs to help make tasks in your app more efficient to execute.

ApplicationStartInfo API

App startup on Android has always been a bit of a mystery. There was no easy way to know within your app whether it started from a cold, warm, or hot state. It was difficult to know how long your app spent during the various launch phases: forking the process, calling onCreate, drawing the first frame, and more. When your application class was instantiated, you had no way of knowing whether the app started from a broadcast, a content provider, a job, a backup, boot complete, an alarm, or an Activity.

The ApplicationStartInfo API on Android 15 gives you all of this and more. You can even choose to add your own timestamps into the flow to make it easy to collect timing data in one place. In addition to collecting metrics, you can use ApplicationStartInfo to help directly optimize app startup; for example, you can eliminate the costly instantiation of UI-related libraries within your Application class when your app is starting up due to a broadcast.

Changes to package stopped state

Android 15 includes several improvements to the PackageManager’s Stopped State. Apps that are in a Stopped State should only be leaving this state through direct user action. Furthermore, apps entering the Stopped State will have their PendingIntents removed. To help developers re-register their pending intents, apps will now receive the BOOT_COMPLETED broadcast once they are removed from the Stopped State. Lastly, the new ApplicationStartInfo will also include the ApplicationStartInfo.wasForceStopped() to let developers know that their app was put into the Stopped State.

Detailed app size information

Android has offered an API, StorageStats.getAppBytes(), that summarizes the installed size of an app as a single number of bytes, which is a sum of the APK size, the size of files extracted from the APK, and files that were generated on the device such as ahead-of-time (AOT) compiled code. This number is not very insightful in terms of how your app is using storage.

Android 15 adds the StorageStats.getAppBytesByDataType([type]) API, which allows you to get insight into how your app is using up all that space, including apk file splits, AOT and speedup related code, dex metadata, libraries, and guided profiles.

Changes to foreground services

Android 14 began requiring Foreground Service Types. The documentation mentions that the dataSync Foreground Service type will be deprecated in a future version of Android.

To support migrating away from the dataSync Foreground Service type, Android 15 includes the mediaProcessing Foreground Service type, which is used to perform time-consuming operations on media assets, like converting media to different formats. In a future Beta release, this service will have a runtime limit of 6 hours.

SQLite database

Android 15 introduces new SQLite APIs that expose advanced features from the underlying SQLite engine that target specific performance issues that can manifest in apps.

Developers should consult best practices for SQLite performance to get the most out of their SQLite database, especially when working with large databases or when running latency-sensitive queries.

    • Row counts and IDs: new APIs were added to retrieve the count of changed rows or the last inserted row ID without issuing an additional query. getLastChangedRowCount() will return the number of rows that were inserted, updated, or deleted by the most recent SQL statement within the current transaction, while getTotalChangedRowCount() will return the count on the current connection. getLastInsertRowId() will return the “rowid” of the last row to be inserted on the current connection.
    • Raw statements: issue a raw SQlite statement, bypassing convenience wrappers and any additional processing overhead that they may incur.

Media refinements

Each release of Android focuses on improving the media experience.

HDR Headroom Control

side by side images of SDR content
The image on the left shows a view with SDR content. The image on the right simulates perceived headroom issues with SDR and HDR mixed content, which we can avoid by setting the desired HDR headroom.

Android 15 chooses HDR headroom that is appropriate for the underlying device capabilities and bit-depth of the panel; for pages that have lots of SDR content such as a messaging app displaying a single HDR thumbnail, this can end up adversely influencing the perceived brightness of the SDR content. Android 15 allows you to control the HDR headroom with setDesiredHdrHeadroom to strike a balance between SDR and HDR content.

Loudness Control

moving image of Droid wearing headphones and bopping his head rhythmically
Android 15 introduces support for the CTA-2075 loudness standard to help you avoid audio loudness inconsistencies and ensure users don't have to constantly adjust volume when switching between content. The system leverages known characteristics of the output devices (headphones, speaker) along with loudness metadata available in AAC audio content to intelligently adjust the audio loudness and dynamic range compression levels.

To enable this feature, you need to ensure loudness metadata is available in your AAC content and enable the platform feature in your app. For this, you instantiate a LoudnessCodecController object by calling its create factory method with the audio session ID from the associated AudioTrack; this automatically starts applying audio updates. You can pass an OnLoudnessCodecUpdateListener to modify/filter loudness parameters before they are applied on the MediaCodec.

// media contains metadata of type MPEG_4 OR MPEG_D
val mediaCodec = ...
val audioTrack = AudioTrack.Builder()
                                .setSessionId(sessionId)
                                .build()
...
// create new loudness controller that applies the parameters to the MediaCodec
try {
   val lcController = LoudnessCodecController.create(mSessionId)
   // starts applying audio updates for each added MediaCodec

AndroidX media3 ExoPlayer will soon be updated to leverage LoudnessCodecController APIs for a seamless app integration.

Use Spatializer instead of Virtualizer

Android 12 included the Spatializer class, which enables querying the capabilities and behavior of sound spatialization on the device. In Android 15, we're deprecating the Virtualizer class; instead use AudioAttributes.Builder.setSpatializationBehavior to characterize how you want your content to be played when spatialization is supported.

AndroidX media3 ExoPlayer 1.0 enables spatial audio by default for multichannel audio when the device supports it. See the blog post and documentation for more information, including APIs to control the feature.

User Experience

AutomaticZenRules allow apps to customize Attention Management (Do Not Disturb) rules and decide when to activate/deactivate them. Android 15 greatly enhances these rules with the goal of improving the user experience. It does this by:

    • Adding types to AutomaticZenRule, allowing the system to apply special treatment to some rules
    • Adding an icon to AutomaticZenRule, helping to make the modes be more recognizable
    • Adding a triggerDescription string to AutomaticZenRule that describes the conditions on which the rule should become active for the user
    • Added ZenDeviceEffects to AutomaticZenRule, allowing rules to trigger things like grayscale display, night mode, or dimming the wallpaper

Behavior changes

Because backward compatibility is so important to us, we try to limit impactful behavior changes, but some are inevitable.

Elegant fonts everywhere

Once your app targets Android 15, the elegantTextHeight TextView attribute becomes true by default, replacing the compact font used by default with some scripts that have large vertical metrics with one that is much more readable. The compact font was introduced to prevent breaking layouts; Android 13 prevents many of these breakages by allowing the text layout to stretch the vertical height utilizing the fallbackLineSpacing attribute. In Android 15, the compact font still remains in the system, so your app can set elegantTextHeight to false to get the same behavior as before, but it is unlikely to be supported in upcoming releases. So, if your application supports the following scripts: Arabic, Lao, Myanmar, Tamil, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Odia, Telugu or Thai, please test your applications by setting elegantTextHeight to true.

Examples and screenshots

Default behavior as of Android 14

Default behavior as of Android 14

Default behavior for applications that target Android 15

Default behavior as of Android 14

App compatibility

Android 15 release timeline

To give you more time to plan for app compatibility work, we’re letting you know our Platform Stability milestone well in advance.

At this milestone, we’ll deliver final SDK/NDK APIs and also final internal APIs and app-facing system behaviors. We’re expecting to reach Platform Stability in June 2024, and from that time you’ll have several months before the official release to do your final testing. The release timeline details are here.

Get started with Android 15

The Developer Preview has everything you need to try the Android 15 features, test your apps, and give us feedback. You can get started today by flashing a system image onto a Pixel 6, 7, or 8 series device, along with the Pixel Fold and Pixel Tablet. We are not offering sideload images for Developer Preview 2. If you don’t have a Pixel device, you can use the 64-bit system images with the Android Emulator in Android Studio. If you've already installed Android 15 Developer Preview 1, you should get an over-the-air update to Android 15 Developer Preview 2.

For the best development experience with Android 15, we recommend that you use the latest preview of Android Studio Jellyfish (or more recent Jellyfish+ versions). Once you’re set up, here are some of the things you should do:

    • Try the new features and APIs - your feedback is critical during the early part of the developer preview. Report issues in our tracker on the feedback page.
    • Test your current app for compatibility - learn whether your app is affected by changes in Android 15; install your app onto a device or emulator running Android 15 and extensively test it.

We’ll update the preview system images and SDK regularly throughout the Android 15 release cycle. This preview release is for developers only and not intended for daily or consumer use, so we're making it available by manual download only. Once you’ve manually installed a preview build, you’ll automatically get future updates over-the-air for all later previews and Betas. Read more here.

If you intend to move from the Android 14 QPR Beta program to the Android 15 Developer Preview program and don't want to have to wipe your device, we recommend that you move to Developer Preview 2 now. Otherwise you may run into time periods where the Android 14 Beta will have a more recent build date which will prevent you from going directly to the Android 15 Developer Preview without doing a data wipe.

As we reach our Beta releases, we'll be inviting consumers to try Android 15 as well, and we'll open up enrollment for the Android Beta program at that time. For now, please note that the Android Beta program is not yet available for Android 15.

For complete information, visit the Android 15 developer site.

Java and OpenJDK are trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates.

Introducing a new Text-To-Speech engine on Wear OS

Posted by Ouiam Koubaa – Product Manager and Yingzhe Li – Software Engineer

Today, we’re excited to announce the release of a new Text-To-Speech (TTS) engine that is performant and reliable. Text-to-speech turns text into natural-sounding speech across more than 50 languages powered by Google’s machine learning (ML) technology. The new text-to-speech engine on Wear OS uses decreased prosody ML models to bring faster synthesis on Wear OS devices.

Use cases for Wear OS’s text-to-speech can range from accessibility services, coaching cues for exercise apps, navigation cues, and reading aloud incoming alerts through the watch speaker or Bluetooth connected headphones. The engine is meant for brief interactions, so it shouldn’t be used for reading aloud a long article, or a long summary of a podcast.

How to use Wear OS’s TTS

Text-to-speech has long been supported on Android. Wear OS’s new TTS has been tuned to be performant and reliable on low-memory devices. All the Android APIs are still the same, so developers use the same process to integrate it into a Wear OS app, for example, TextToSpeech#speak can be used to speak specific text. This is available on devices that run Wear OS 4 or higher.

When the user interacts with the Wear OS TTS for the first time following a device boot, the synthesis engine is ready in about 10 seconds. For special cases where developers want the watch to speak immediately after opening an app or launching an experience, the following code can be used to pre-warm the TTS engine before any synthesis requests come in.

private fun initTtsEngine() {
    // Callback when TextToSpeech connection is set up
    val callback = TextToSpeech.OnInitListener { status ->
        if (status == TextToSpeech.SUCCESS) {
            Log.i(TAG, "tts Client Initialized successfully")


            // Get default TTS locale
            val defaultVoice = tts.voice
            if (defaultVoice == null) {
                Log.w(TAG, "defaultVoice == null")
                return@OnInitListener
            }


            // Set TTS engine to use default locale
            tts.language = defaultVoice.locale




            try {
                // Create a temporary file to synthesize sample text
                val tempFile =
                        File.createTempFile("tmpsynthesize", null, applicationContext.cacheDir)


                // Synthesize sample text to our file
                tts.synthesizeToFile(
                        /* text= */ "1 2 3", // Some sample text
                        /* params= */ null, // No params necessary for a sample request
                        /* file= */ tempFile,
                        /* utteranceId= */ "sampletext"
                )


                // And clean up the file
                tempFile.deleteOnExit()
            } catch (e: Exception) {
                Log.e(TAG, "Unhandled exception: ", e)
            }
        }
    }


    tts = TextToSpeech(applicationContext, callback)
}

When you are done using TTS, you can release the engine by calling tts.shutdown() in your activity’s onDestroy() method. This command should also be used when closing an app that TTS is used for.

Languages and Locales

By default, Wear OS TTS includes 7 pre-loaded languages in the system image: English, Spanish, French, Italian, German, Japanese, and Mandarin Chinese. OEMs may choose to preload a different set of languages. You can check what languages are available by using TextToSpeech#getAvailableLanguages(). During watch setup, if the user selects a system language that is not a pre-loaded voice file, the watch automatically downloads the corresponding voice file the first time the user connects to Wi-Fi while charging their watch.

There are limited cases where the speech output may differ from the user’s system language. For example, in a scenario where a safety app uses TTS to call emergency responders, developers might want to synthesize speech in the language of the locale the user is in, not in the language the user has their watch set to. To synthesize text in a different language from system settings, use TextToSpeech#setLanguage(java.util.Locale)

Conclusion

Your Wear OS apps now have the power to talk, either directly from the watch’s speakers or through Bluetooth connected headphones. Learn more about using TTS.

We look forward to seeing how you use Text-to-speech engine to create more helpful and engaging experiences for your users on Wear OS!


Copyright 2023 Google LLC.
SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0

Android Studio Hedgehog is stable

Posted by Sandhya Mohan, Product Manager

Today, we are thrilled to announce the stable release of Android Studio Hedgehog 🦔 : The official IDE for building Android apps!

In this Android Studio release, we have upgraded the IntelliJ platform to 2023.1, with features designed to improve app performance and battery life, make it easier to upgrade applications to the latest Android version, and make it faster to develop using Jetpack Compose. Read on to learn more about how Android Studio Hedgehog can help supercharge your developer productivity.

App performance

Android vitals in App Quality Insights

In addition to helping you investigate crash reports for apps instrumented with the Firebase Crashlytics SDK, App Quality Insights now also includes Android vitals data from Google Play Console. With Android vitals, you can see crash reports for any app you publish to the Google Play Store without requiring additional instrumentation in your app. You can view Android vitals issues, filter them, and see crash insights from Play to quickly understand and resolve the cause of a crash, and jump from stack trace to code all from the App Quality Insights tool window. Learn more.

Note: If you don't have permission to view your app in the Play Console, request that the app admin share read-only access to only app quality information, by clicking Users and permissions > View app quality information (read-only) in the Play Console.

Screengrab of Android Vitals data in App Quality Insights
Android Vitals data in App Quality Insights

Power Profiler

The new Power Profiler shows power consumption on devices. It segments the power consumption information by subsystems called "Power Rails". This helps you visualize the correlation between power consumed and the actions occurring in your app. This approach of directly measuring power consumption differs from the legacy Energy Profiler, which only used a model to estimate energy consumption.

By understanding this information, you can potentially identify and fix power consumption issues in your app by running A/B tests to compare the power consumption of different algorithms, features or even different versions of your app.

Apps which are optimized for lower power consumption lead to an improved battery and thermal performance, eventually leading to an improved end user experience. Power Rails data is available on Pixel 6+ devices running Android 10+.

Example of power consumption in different power rails.
Example of power consumption in different power rails.

Coding productivity

Target Android 14 using Android SDK Upgrade Assistant

The SDK Upgrade Assistant provides a step by step wizard flow to help developers through targetSdkVersion upgrades. It pulls documentation directly into the IDE, saving you time and effort.

Android Studio Hedgehog adds support for upgrading projects to Android 14 (API Level 34). We’ve also added additional relevance filters so that unnecessary steps are removed — and in some cases, the upgrade assistant will pinpoint exactly where in code the changes need to be made.

Screengrab of Android SDK Upgrade Assistant
Android SDK Upgrade Assistant

New UI updates

In the Giraffe release, we launched a new UI for the IDE. This reimagined theme reduces visual complexity and provides easier access to essential features, resulting in a more modern and clean look and feel. We’ve listened to your feedback and, in Hedgehog, we’ve added updates for compact mode, vertical and horizontal splitting, and project tabs for Mac OS. If you have not yet tried the new UI, we encourage you to do so.

Screengrab of Compact mode in the New UI
Compact mode in the New UI

Device mirroring

You can now mirror your physical Android device in the Running Devices window in Android Studio. While mirroring your device's display directly via ADB over USB or Wi-FI to Android Studio, you can execute common actions such as starting and interacting with apps, rotating the screen, folding and unfolding the phone, changing the volume, and more – directly from within Android Studio. Learn more.

Moving image demonstrating device mirroring in the running devices window
Device Mirroring in the Running Devices window

Embedded Layout Inspector

You now have the option to run the Layout Inspector directly in the Running Devices tool window while running your app on an embedded virtual device or mirrored physical device. This opt-in feature significantly improves performance of Layout Inspector, conserves screen real estate, helps organize your UI debugging workflow in a single tool window, and improves speed while inspecting your layout. In embedded mode, you can show a view hierarchy, inspect the properties of each view, navigate to code using “deep inspect” mode, and access other common Layout Inspector features. Enable it through Settings > Experimental > Layout Inspector

Screengrab showing Embedded Layout Inspector
Embedded Layout Inspector

Live Edit updated manual mode shortcut

Live Edit has a new default shortcut for manual mode for: Control+\ (Command+\ for macOS). Manual mode is helpful in situations where you want to have precise control over when updates are deployed to the running application. For more information, see the video clip in Live Edit for Jetpack Compose.

Compose tools

Compose Preview’s Gallery Mode

Gallery mode is a new mode in Compose Preview that lets you focus on one Preview at a time to conserve rendering resources. Use Gallery mode when iterating on UI and switch to other modes (Grid or List) when you need to see UI variants.

Moving image of Compose Preview's Gallery Mode
Compose Preview’s Gallery Mode

Compose State information in Debugger

When setting a breakpoint on a Composable function, the debugger now lists the parameters of the composable and their state, so you can more easily identify what changes might have caused unexpected recompositions.

Screengrab of Compose State information in Debugger
Compose State information in Debugger

Compose Multipreview templates

Android Studio Hedgehog includes support for the latest annotations added by the Compose Multipreview API, allowing developers to render common layout scenarios side-by-side while working with the Compose Preview.

The new annotations added include: @PreviewScreenSizes, @PreviewFontScales, @PreviewLightDark, and @PreviewDynamicColors

Screengrab of Compose Multipreview templates
Compose Multipreview templates

Build tools

New macro to specify JDK path

A new macro, #GRADLE_LOCAL_JAVA_HOME, makes it safer and easier to specify the Java* home path used for the Gradle daemon (background process) execution for your project by referencing your .gradle/config.properties file. This reduces errors related to incompatible Gradle and project JDK versions, since there is now a single source of truth for your Gradle JDK selection.

Starting with Android Studio Hedgehog, new projects will use #GRADLE_LOCAL_JAVA_HOME by default. Existing projects will automatically be migrated to the new macro after a successful sync, unless you're already using a macro like #JAVA_HOME.

[Windows-only] Minimize the impact of antivirus software on build speed

The Build Analyzer informs users if antivirus software may be impacting build performance. This can occur if antivirus software, such as Windows Defender, is performing real-time scanning of directories used by Gradle. Build Analyzer recommends a list of directories to exclude from active scanning, and, if possible, provides a link to add them to the Windows Defender folder exclusion list.

Use Firebase Test Lab devices with Gradle Managed Devices

Gradle Managed Devices can now target Firebase Test Lab devices, and you can utilize it to run your automated tests at scale. Use Gradle Managed Devices to select from a wide range range of both physical and virtual FTL devices, with support for test sharding for accelerated execution time. To use FTL devices, you need Android Gradle Plugin 8.2 with the latest Alpha version of the Firebase Test Lab Gradle plugin. Learn more.

Download Android Studio today!

Now is the time to download Android Studio Hedgehog to incorporate the new features into your workflow. As always, we appreciate any feedback on things you like, issues, or features you would like to see. If you find an issue, please check the known issues and file a bug if needed. Remember to also follow us on X (formerly known as Twitter), Medium, or YouTube for more Android development updates!


*Java is a trademark or registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates.

Wear OS 4 is now stable and available on Google Pixel Watch 2!

Posted by Kseniia Shumelchyk, Android Developer Relations Engineer and Kevin Hufnagle, Android Technical Writer

Google Pixel Watch 2 is here and brings the capabilities of Wear OS 4 to users; get your app ready for the latest software and devices!


We're excited to bring Wear OS 4 and new user experiences to more devices, including the new Google Pixel Watch 2! We’re also providing updated developer tools for you to prepare your apps for Wear OS 4.

Pixel Watch 2, announced at Made by Google, will support Wear OS 4 upon its release this month. Wear OS 4 brings features and improvements to help you deliver more engaging and delightful experiences in your app.
Image of three watch faces created using the Watch Face Format

Later this year, Pixel Watches will receive a system update to Wear OS 4, further expanding the set of users who can enjoy your app’s capabilities on the latest software.

Developers can also continue to use Samsung Galaxy Watches to test their apps on Wear OS 4.

The latest version of Wear OS offers several capabilities that make it easier to develop dependable, helpful wearable experiences:

Watch Face Format

Created in partnership with Samsung, the Watch Face Format is a declarative XML format that lets you design the appearance and behavior of watch faces. There is no executable code involved in creating a watch face using the Watch Face Format, and there will be no code embedded in your watch face APK.

The Wear OS platform takes care of the logic needed to render the watch face that uses the Watch Face Format. This means that you don’t have to worry about code optimizations or battery performance. We recommend that you create your watch face using the Watch Face Format.

Image of three watch faces created using the Watch Face Format
Watch faces created using the Watch Face Format

More seamless data transfer

On devices that support cloud backup—including Pixel Watch 2 and Pixel Watch—users can transfer data from one Wear OS watch to another using a cloud backup and restore process. You can customize the set of files in your app that the system should include in a cloud backup, so that users only restore app data that’s meaningful to them.

Additionally, Wear OS 4 allows users to transfer their watch to a new phone without needing to perform a factory reset on the watch. They complete this process when setting up the new phone, as shown in the following flow below.

If your app stores user configuration data for the watch on the old phone, you can allow the system to transfer this app data onto the new phone too. The guide on how to transfer Wear OS data to a new mobile device has more details.

ALT TEXT
The user-facing process for transferring watch data onto a new phone, when the user first connects the new phone to the watch. This example shows the experience when the user initiates the data transfer from the old phone.

Enhanced Tiles

Wear OS 4 offers enhanced capabilities for your app’s tiles. Version 1.2 of the Jetpack Tiles library introduces support for platform data bindings and animations, so you can provide even more responsive experiences to your users.

Moving images of animated tile on the left and a tile using data binding on the right
Watch faces created using the Watch Face FormatExamples of animated tile (on the left) and a tile using data binding (on the right)

Get your app ready for Wear OS 4

Wear OS 4 is based on Android 13, which is several versions newer than the current Wear OS version, so your app will need to handle the system behavior changes that take effect in Android 12 and Android 13.

Read the developer documentation to discover key behavior changes and learn how to interact with new features. We recommend you start by testing your app and releasing a compatible update, so that you’re ready when the first devices get upgraded to Wear OS 4. This gives your app a basic but critical level of quality that provides a good experience for users.

Wear OS 4 emulator

Today we’ve also released updated system images for Wear OS emulators, available starting in Android Studio Hedgehog to help test your apps on Wear OS 4.

The new Wear OS 4 emulator doesn’t support native 32-bit code, so if your app uses native code, make sure that it includes both 32-bit and 64-bit native libraries. This will also prepare your app for upcoming 64-bit only hardware.

Learn more

To begin developing apps for Wear OS, try our Compose for Wear OS codelab, and check out the documentation and samples.

Discover even more! View the Wear OS session from Google I/O, and read about the latest Jetpack releases for Wear OS.

There’s never been a better time to get your app ready for Wear OS 4 and all the latest Wear OS watches. We can’t wait to see your apps on Wear OS 4 and what experiences you’ll build!

Android 14 is live in AOSP

Posted by Dave Burke, VP of Engineering

Today we're releasing Android 14 and pushing the Android 14 source to the Android Open Source Project (AOSP). Android 14 is designed to improve your productivity as developers while enhancing performance, privacy, security, and customization for users.

Android 14 is rolling out to select Pixel devices starting today, and will be available later this year on some of your favorite devices from Samsung Galaxy, iQOO, Nothing, OnePlus, Oppo, Realme, Sharp, Sony, Tecno, vivo and Xiaomi.

Thank you for taking the time to take Android 14 for an early spin though our developer preview and beta programs, sharing your feedback, and making sure your apps deliver a great experience on Android 14. Making Android work well for each and every one of the billions of Android users is a collaborative process between us, Android hardware manufacturers, and you, our developer community.

This post covers a selection of Android 14 changes that have the most developer impact. For a complete list of all of the Android 14 changes, visit the Android 14 developer site.

Performance and Efficiency

A big focus of Android 14 was on improving the performance and efficiency of the platform.

Freezing cached applications

Prior to Android 14, cached applications were allowed to run somewhat unconstrained. In Android 14, we freeze cached applications after a short period of time, giving them 0 CPU time. In Android 14 Beta populations, we see that cached processes consume up to 50% less CPU cycles as compared to Android 13 public devices. Thus, background work is disallowed outside of conventional Android app lifecycle APIs such as foreground services, JobScheduler, or WorkManager.

Optimized broadcasts

To keep frozen applications frozen longer (i.e. not get CPU time), we adjusted how apps receive context-registered broadcasts once they go into a cached state; they may be queued, and repeating ones, such as BATTERY_CHANGED, may be merged into one broadcast.

Faster app launches

With cached app and broadcast optimizations In Android 14, we were able to increase long-standing limits on the maximum number of cached applications in the platform, leading to a reduction in cold app starts that scales by the RAM present on the device. On 8GB devices, the beta group saw 20% fewer cold app starts, and on 12GB devices it was over 30% fewer. Cold startups are slow compared to warm startups and they are expensive in terms of power. This work effectively improves both power usage and overall app startup times.

Reduced memory footprint

Improving the Android Runtime (ART) has a huge impact on the Android user-experience. Code size is one of the key metrics we look at; smaller generated files are better for memory (both RAM and storage). In Android 14, ART includes optimizations that reduce code size by an average of 9.3% without impacting performance.

Customization

Customization is at the core of Android's DNA, and Android 14 continues our commitment to enabling Android users to tune their experience around their individual needs, including enhanced accessibility and internationalization features.

Bigger fonts with non-linear scaling – Starting in Android 14, users will be able to scale up their font to 200%. Previously, the maximum font size scale on Pixel devices was 130%. A non-linear font scaling curve is automatically applied to ensure that text that is already large enough doesn’t increase at the same rate as smaller text. Learn more here.

Image showing the differences between font with no scaling at 100% on the left, standard scaling at 200% in the middle, and non-linear scaling at 200% on the right

Per-app language preferences – You can dynamically update your app's localeConfig with LocaleManager.setOverrideLocaleConfig to customize the set of languages displayed in the per-app language list in Android Settings. IMEs can now use LocaleManager.getApplicationLocales to know the UI language of the current app to update the keyboard language. Starting with Android Studio Giraffe and AGP 8.1, you can configure your app to support Android 13's per-app language preferences automatically.

Regional preferencesRegional preferences enable users to personalize temperature units, the first day of the week, and numbering systems.

Grammatical Inflection – The Grammatical Inflection API allows you to more easily add support for users who speak languages that have grammatical gender. To show personalized translations, you just need to add translations inflected for each grammatical gender for impacted languages and integrate the API.

New media capabilities


Ultra HDR for images
- Android 14 adds support for 10-bit high dynamic range (HDR) images, with support for the Ultra HDR image format. The format is fully backward-compatible with JPEG, allowing apps to seamlessly interoperate with HDR images.

Zoom, Focus, Postview, and more in Camera Extensions - Android 14 upgrades and improves Camera Extensions, allowing apps to handle longer processing times, enabling improved images using compute-intensive algorithms like low-light photography on supported devices.

Lossless USB audio - Android 14 devices can support lossless audio formats for audiophile-level experiences over USB wired headsets.

New graphics capabilities

Custom meshes with vertex and fragment shaders - Android 14 adds support for custom meshes, which can be defined as triangles or triangle strips, and can, optionally, be indexed. These meshes are specified with custom attributes, vertex strides, varying, and vertex/fragment shaders written in AGSL.

Hardware buffer renderer for Canvas - Android 14 introduces HardwareBufferRenderer to assist in using Android's Canvas API to draw with hardware acceleration into a HardwareBuffer, which is particularly helpful when your use case involves communication with the system compositor through SurfaceControl for low-latency drawing.

Developing across form factors

Android 14 builds on the work done in Android 12L and 13 to support tablets and foldable form factors including a taskbar supporting enhanced multitasking, large-screen optimized system apps and notification UI, activity embedding, enhanced letterboxing, improved media projection, and more. Our app quality guidance for large screens along with additional learning opportunities around building for large screens and foldables can help optimize your app across all Android surfaces, while the large screen gallery contains design patterns and inspiration for social and communications, media, productivity, shopping, and reading apps.

Improving your productivity

Android 14 contains many updates focused on making your development experience more consistent, fun, and productive. Many of these updates are being made available on older platform releases using a combination of Google Play system updates, Jetpack libraries, and Google Play services, so you can reach more users with them.

OpenJDK 17 Support - Thanks to Google Play system updates (Project Mainline), over 600M devices are enabled to receive the latest Android Runtime (ART) updates that ship with Android 14. Learn more here.

Credential Manager and Passkeys support - Credential Manager is a new Jetpack API that supports multiple sign-in methods, such as username and password, passkeys, and federated sign-in solutions (such as Sign-in with Google) in a single API, simplifying your integration. Using Google Play services, Credential Manager is supported back to Android 4.4 (API level 19). Read more here.

Health Connect - Health Connect is a user controlled on-device repository for user health and fitness data that makes it easier than ever to support an integrated health and fitness experience across apps and connected devices. Health Connect is part of the Android platform and receives updates via Google Play system updates without requiring a separate download, and is available to older devices as an app on the Google Play store. Read about Health Connect and more in What's new in Android Health.

Superior system sharesheets - To make it easy to give your app's users a rich, consistent, sharing experience, the system sharesheets in Android 14 are configurable with custom actions and improved ranking.

More consistent and reliable foreground services- We've collaborated with hardware manufacturers such as Samsung to create both a more consistent developer experience and a more reliable user experience. To this end, Android 14 has a new requirement to declare foreground service types and request type-specific permissions and we have Google Play policies to enforce appropriate use of these APIs. We've also added a new user-initiated data transfer job type, making the experience of managing large user-initiated uploads and downloads smoother by leveraging JobScheduler's constraints (e.g. network constraints such as unmetered WiFi).

User experience

Predictive Back - Android 14 introduces new Predictive Back system animations – cross-activity and cross-task – to join the back-to-home animation introduced in Android 13. The system animations remain behind a developer option to allow time for additional polish and for more apps to opt-into Predictive Back; Material and Jetpack Predictive Back animations are available to users today.

Privacy and security

 
Data sharing updates – Users will see a new section in the location runtime permission dialog that highlights when an app shares location data with third parties, where they can get more information and control the app’s data access.

Partial access to photos and videos – When your app targeting SDK 34 requests any of the visual media permissions introduced in SDK 33 (READ_MEDIA_IMAGES / READ_MEDIA_VIDEO), Android 14 users can now grant your app access to only selected photos and videos. To adapt your app to this change, we recommend following our recent best practices.

Background activity launchingAndroid 10 (API level 29) and higher place restrictions on when apps can start activities when running in the background. To further reduce instances of unexpected interruptions, apps targeting Android 14 need to grant privileges to start activities in the background when sending a PendingIntent or when binding a service.

Block installation of apps targeting older SDK versions – To protect against malware that targets older API levels to bypass security and privacy protections, apps with a targetSdkVersion lower than 23 cannot be installed on Android 14.

Runtime receivers – Apps targeting Android 14 must indicate if dynamic Context.registerReceiver() usage should be treated as "exported" or "unexported", a continuation of the manifest-level work from previous releases. Learn more here.

Secure full screen Intent notifications – Since full-screen intent notifications are designed for extremely high-priority notifications demanding the user's immediate attention, Android 14 limits the apps granted this permission on app install to those that provide calling and alarms only. Your app can now launch the settings page where users can grant the permission.

Safer dynamic code loading – Apps targeting Android 14 require dynamically loaded files to be marked as read-only. Learn more here.

Safer implicit intents – For apps targeting Android 14, creating a mutable pending intent with an implicit intent will throw an exception, preventing them from being able to be used to trigger unexpected code paths. Apps need to either make the pending intent immutable or make the intent explicit. Learn more here.

App compatibility

We’re working to make updates faster and smoother with each platform release by prioritizing app compatibility. In Android 14 we’ve made most app-facing changes opt-in until your app targets SDK version 34 to give you more time to make any necessary app changes, and we’ve updated our tools and processes to help you get ready sooner.

Easier testing and debugging of changes – To make it easier for you to test the opt-in changes that can affect your app, we’ll make many of them toggleable again this year. With the toggles, you can force-enable or disable the changes individually from Developer options or adb. Check out the details here.

image of app compatibility toggles in Developer Options
App compatibility toggles in Developer Options.

Get your apps, libraries, tools, and game engines ready!

Now is the time to finish your final compatibility testing and publish any necessary updates to ensure a smooth app experience.

If you develop an SDK, library, tool, or game engine, it's even more important to release any necessary updates now to prevent your downstream app and game developers from being blocked by compatibility issues and allow them to target the latest SDK features. Please make sure to let your developers know if updates are needed to fully support Android 14.

Testing your app involves installing your production app onto a device running Android 14; you can use Google Play or other means. Work through all the app's flows and look for functional or UI issues. Review the behavior changes to focus your testing. Each release of Android contains changes to the platform that improve privacy, security, and the overall user experience, and these changes can affect your apps. Here are some top changes to test:

Remember to exercise libraries and SDKs that your app is using in your compatibility testing. You may need to update to current SDK versions or reach out to the developer for help.

Once you’ve published the compatible version of your current app, you can start the process to update your app's targetSdkVersion. Review the behavior changes that apply when your app targets Android 14 and use the compatibility framework to help detect issues quickly.

Get started with Android 14

If you have a supported Pixel device, and are not enrolled in the Android Beta program, you will receive the public Android 14 OTA update as it becomes available (it may take a week or longer as this is a phased rollout dependent on device type and carrier). If you are currently enrolled in the Android Beta program running Android 14, you likely have received and installed the beta of the next Android 14 quarterly platform release (QPR1).

System images for Pixel devices are available here for manual download and flash, and you can get the latest 64-bit Android Emulator system images via the Android Studio SDK Manager. If you're looking for the Android 14 source, you'll find it here in the Android Open Source Project repository under the Android 14 branches.

For the best development experience with Android 14, we recommend that you use the latest release of Android Studio Hedgehog. Once you’re set up, here are some of the things you should do:

  • Try the new features and APIs. Report issues in our tracker on the feedback page.
  • Test your current app for compatibility – learn whether your app is affected by default behavior changes in Android 14. Install your app onto a device or emulator running Android 14 and extensively test it.
  • Test your app with opt-in changes – Android 14 has opt-in behavior changes that only affect your app when it’s targeting the new platform. It’s important to understand and assess these changes early. To make it easier to test, you can toggle the changes on and off individually.
  • Update your app with the Android SDK Upgrade Assistant – Android Studio Hedgehog now filters and identifies the specific Android 14 API changes that are relevant to your app, and walks you through the steps to upgrade your targetSdkVersion with the Android SDK Upgrade Assistant.
Screengrab of Android SDK Upgrade Assistant on Google Pixel Fold

Thank you again for participating in our Android developer preview and beta program! We're looking forward to seeing how your apps take advantage of the updates in Android 14.

Java and OpenJDK are trademarks or registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates.

Android 14 Beta 5

Posted by Dave Burke, VP of Engineering
Android 14 logo

With the official release of Android 14 only weeks away, today we're bringing you Beta 5, the last scheduled update in our Android 14 beta program. It's the last chance to make sure your apps are ready and provide feedback before non-beta users start getting Android 14. To enable you to test your applications on devices spanning multiple form factors, Beta 5 is available for Pixel Tablet and Pixel Fold, in addition to the rest of the supported Pixel family and the Android emulator.

What's in Beta 5?

Beta 5 is our third Platform Stable Android 14 release, which means that the developer APIs and all app-facing behaviors are final for you to review and integrate into your apps, and you can publish apps on Google Play targeting Android 14's SDK version 34. It includes the latest fixes and optimizations, giving you everything you need to complete your testing.

Image of timeline showing Android 14 release is on schedule with Platform Stability testing happening in August

Get your apps, libraries, tools, and game engines ready!

The official Android 14 release is just weeks ahead, so please finish your final compatibility testing and publish any necessary updates to ensure a smooth app experience ahead of the final release of Android 14.

If you develop an SDK, library, tool, or game engine, it's even more important to release any necessary updates now to prevent your downstream app and game developers from being blocked by compatibility issues and allow them to target the latest SDK features. Please make sure to let your developers know if updates are needed to fully support Android 14.

Testing your app involves installing your production app onto a device running Android 14 Beta 5; you can use Google Play or other means. Work through all the app's flows and look for functional or UI issues. Review the behavior changes to focus your testing. Each release of Android contains changes to the platform that improve privacy, security, and the overall user experience, and these changes can affect your apps. Here are some top changes to test:

Remember to exercise libraries and SDKs that your app is using in your compatibility testing. You may need to update to current SDK versions or reach out to the developer for help.

Once you’ve published the compatible version of your current app, you can start the process to update your app's targetSdkVersion. Review the behavior changes that apply when your app targets Android 14 and use the compatibility framework to help detect issues quickly.

Get started with Android 14

Today's Beta 5 release has everything you need to try Android 14 features, test your apps, and give us feedback. You can enroll any supported Pixel device here to get this and future Android 14 Beta and feature drop Beta updates over-the-air, and 64-bit Android Emulator system images will be available soon in the Android Studio SDK Manager.

For the best development experience with Android 14, we recommend that you use the latest release of Android Studio Hedgehog. Once you’re set up, here are some of the things you should do:

  • Try the new features and APIs. Report issues in our tracker on the feedback page.
  • Test your current app for compatibility – learn whether your app is affected by default behavior changes in Android 14. Install your app onto a device or emulator running Android 14 and extensively test it.
  • Test your app with opt-in changes – Android 14 has opt-in behavior changes that only affect your app when it’s targeting the new platform. It’s important to understand and assess these changes early. To make it easier to test, you can toggle the changes on and off individually.
  • Update your app with the Android SDK Upgrade Assistant - Android Studio Hedgehog now filters and identifies the specific Android 14 API changes that are relevant to your app, and walks you through the steps to upgrade your targetSdkVersion with the Android SDK Upgrade Assistant.

We’ll update the beta system images regularly throughout the Android 14 release cycle.

If you are already enrolled in the Android 14 Beta program and your device is supported, Beta 5 will be made available to you as an Over The Air update without taking any additional action.

For complete information on how to get the Beta, visit the Android 14 developer site.

What’s new in the Jetpack Compose August ’23 release

Posted by Ben Trengrove, Android Developer Relations Engineer

Today, as part of the Compose August ‘23 Bill of Materials, we’re releasing version 1.5 of Jetpack Compose, Android's modern, native UI toolkit that is used by apps such as Play Store, Dropbox, and Airbnb. This release largely focuses on performance improvements, as major parts of our modifier refactor we began in the October ‘22 release are now merged.

Performance

When we first released Compose 1.0 in 2021, we were focused on getting the API surface right to provide a solid foundation to build on. We wanted a powerful and expressive API that was easy to use and stable so that developers could confidently use it in production. As we continue to improve the API, performance is our top priority, and in the August ‘23 release, we have landed many performance improvements.

Modifier performance

Modifiers see large performance improvements, up to 80% improvement to composition time, in this release. The best part is that, thanks to our work getting the API surface right in the first release, most apps will see these benefits just by upgrading to the August ‘23 release.

We have a suite of benchmarks that are used to monitor for regressions and to inform our investments in improving performance. After the initial 1.0 release of Compose, we began focusing on where we could make improvements. The benchmarks showed that we were spending more time than anticipated materializing modifiers. Modifiers make up the vast majority of a composition tree and, as such, were the largest contributor to initial composition time in Compose. Refactoring modifiers to a more efficient design began under the hood in the October ‘22 release.

The October ‘22 release included new APIs and performance improvements in our lowest level module, Compose UI. Modifiers build on top of each other so we started migrating our low level modifiers in Compose Foundation in the next release, March ‘23. This included graphicsLayer, low level focus modifiers, padding, and offset. These low level modifiers are used by other highly utilized modifiers such as Clickable, and are also utilized by many framework Composables such as Text. Migrating modifiers in the March ‘23 release brought performance improvements to those components, but the real gains would come when we could migrate the higher level modifiers and composables themselves to the new modifier system.

In the August ‘23 release, we have begun migrating the Clickable modifier to the new modifier system, bringing substantial improvements to composition time, in some cases up to 80%. This is especially relevant in lazy lists that contain clickable elements such as buttons. Modifier.indication, used by Clickable, is still in the process of being migrated, so we anticipate further gains to come in future releases.

As part of this work, we identified a use case for composed modifiers that wasn’t covered in the original refactor and added a new API to create Modifier.Node elements that consume CompositionLocal instances.

We are now working on documentation to guide you through migrating your own modifiers to the new Modifier.Node API. To get started right away, you can reference the samples in our repository.

Learn more about the rationale behind the changes in the Compose Modifiers deep dive talk from Android Dev Summit ‘22.

Memory

This release includes a number of improvements in memory usage. We have taken a hard look at allocations happening across different Compose APIs and have reduced the total allocations in a number of areas, especially in the graphics stack and vector resource loading. This not only reduces the memory footprint of Compose, but also directly improves performance, as we spend less time allocating memory and reduce garbage collection.

In addition, we fixed a memory leak when using ComposeView, which will benefit all apps but especially those that use multi-activity architecture or large amounts of View/Compose interop.

Text

BasicText has moved to a new rendering system backed by the modifier work, which has brought an average of gain of 22% to initial composition time and up to a 70% gain in one benchmark of complex layouts involving text.

A number of Text APIs have also been stabilized, including:

Improvements and fixes for core features

We have also shipped new features and improvements in our core APIs as well as stabilizing some APIs:

  • LazyStaggeredGrid is now stable.
  • Added asComposePaint API to replace toComposePaint as the returned object wraps the original android.graphics.Paint.
  • Added IntermediateMeasurePolicy to support lookahead in SubcomposeLayout.
  • Added onInterceptKeyBeforeSoftKeyboard modifier to intercept key events before the soft keyboard.

Get started!

We’re grateful for all of the bug reports and feature requests submitted to our issue tracker — they help us to improve Compose and build the APIs you need. Continue providing your feedback, and help us make Compose better!

Wondering what’s next? Check out our roadmap to see the features we’re currently thinking about and working on. We can’t wait to see what you build next!

Happy composing!