Tag Archives: Google News Initiative

Elevating original reporting in Search

Google Search was built to provide everyone access to information on the web—and with tens of thousands of web pages, hundreds of hours of video, thousands of tweets and news stories published every minute of the day, our job is to sift through that content and find the most helpful results possible. With news in particular, we always aim to show a diversity of articles and sources to give users as much context and insight as possible.   

An important element of the coverage we want to provide is original reporting, an endeavor which requires significant time, effort and resources by the publisher. Some stories can also be both critically important in the impact they can have on our world and difficult to put together, requiring reporters to engage in deep investigative pursuits to dig up facts and sources.  These are among the reasons why we aim to support these industry efforts and help people get access to the most authoritative reporting.

Recently, we’ve made ranking updates and published changes to our search rater guidelinesto help us better recognize original reporting, surface it more prominently in Search and ensure it stays there longer. This means readers interested in the latest news can find the story that started it all, and publishers can benefit from having their original reporting more widely seen.

Ranking changes to support original reporting 

In today’s fast-paced world of news, the original reporting on a subject doesn’t always stay in the spotlight for long. Many news articles, investigations, exclusive interviews or other work can be so notable that they generate interest and follow-up coverage from other publications. And in other cases, many stories cover a single news development, with all of them published around the same time. This can make it difficult for users to find the story that kicked everything off.

While we typically show the latest and most comprehensive version of a story in news results, we've made changes to our products globally to highlight articles that we identify as significant original reporting. Such articles may stay in a highly visible position longer. This prominence allows users to view the original reporting while also looking at more recent articles alongside it.

There is no absolute definition of original reporting, nor is there an absolute standard for establishing how original a given article is. It can mean different things to different newsrooms and publishers at different times, so our efforts will constantly evolve as we work to understand the life cycle of a story.

Changing our rater guidelines

We use algorithms to sort through everything we find on the web and organize this content in a way that is helpful. Those algorithms are composed of hundreds of different signals that are constantly updated and improved. To tune and validate our algorithms and help our systems understand the authoritativeness of individual pages, we have more than 10,000 raters around the world evaluating our work - their feedback doesn't change the ranking of the specific results they're reviewing; instead it is used to evaluate and improve algorithms in a way that applies to all results. The principles that guide how they operate are mapped out in our search rater guidelines, a public document that allows raters to better understand and assess the unique characteristics of content that appears in Search results. 

In short: these guidelines are the clear description of what we value in content when ranking.  And we’ve just introduced a change to help us gather new feedback so that our automated ranking systems can better surface original content. 

To illustrate the update, in section 5.1 of the guidelines, we instruct raters to use the highest rating, “very high quality,” for original news reporting “that provides information that would not otherwise have been known had the article not revealed it. Original, in-depth, and investigative reporting requires a high degree of skill, time, and effort.”

In addition to recognizing individual instances of original reporting at the page level, we also ask raters to consider the publisher’s overall reputation for original reporting. That update in section 2.6.1 reads: “Many other kinds of websites have reputations as well. For example, you might find that a newspaper (with an associated website) has won journalistic awards. Prestigious awards, such as the Pulitzer Prize award, or a history of high quality original reporting are strong evidence of positive reputation.”

We hope these updates to elevate original reporting will provide people with a deeper understanding of their changing communities and the conversations going on around them. Giving everyone better access to original journalism across all types of stories—ranging from moviessportsmusic and celebrity scoops to the serious journalism behind #MeToo, the Panama Papers and the opioid crisis—is all about helping people stay informed about the news that matters to them. 

Source: Search


Newsmakers: Creating a “digital butler” with News UK

Mike Migliore

Not all news industry executives have a background like Mike Migliore. Before making his way into the business, he earned a master’s degree in musicology, focusing on 19th century Italian opera. These days, he uses his creative mind for a different purpose. As a senior business strategist at News UK, Mike’s work is at the nexus of digital transformation, product strategies and artificial intelligence. 

Over the past year and a half, this has translated into collaborative projects like JAMES, an AI “digital butler” that individualizes the way news is shared with News UK readers, on publications including The Times and The Sunday Times. Created in collaboration with Twipe and with the support of the Google News Initiative, JAMES has had impressive results, with 70% of readers clicking on suggested stories and a 49% decrease in subscription cancellations during the experiment. We spoke with Mike about his work and thoughts on the importance of integrating new technologies into the news industry.

How do you explain your job at a dinner party?

As Head of Customer Value, I use data to make sure that customers use our products, that they stay with us and ultimately spend more money with us over time. Metaphorically, I’m equal parts lecturer, traffic cop, orchestral conductor and cheerleader.

How did you start working in the news industry? 

I came to the U.K. to do my master’s in music at King’s College London, and I sort of fell into marketing. I got a job at News UK in 2013 and have been there ever since, working in a variety of digital marketing and commercial roles with our publications including The Times and The Sunday Times. Culturally, the company is full of smart, passionate people who are always looking for a new challenge or a new way of doing things, and I thrive in that sort of environment. 

How has technology changed the way readers interact with news?

Consumers expect brands to put them first, to put their needs and feedback before revenue. There is also a question of what counts as “news” these days. Consumers expect their own perception of news to fit into their lives, to elevate them, to keep them, in the case of The Times and The Sunday Times, not just informed but well informed. 

In many respects, our edition-based approach to publishing and our use of the newly launched JAMES are responses to these changes. We believe in considering deeply the impact of events, politics and current affairs on individuals’ lives, and our journalism reflects that. We publish the most considered stories four times a day instead of constantly updating minute by minute. In essence, we believe it’s better to be right rather than “right now.” That’s what led to the creation of JAMES. Using AI, we are able to anticipate readers’ needs and not only deliver the curated content that they want, but also determine when and how they want it. I look at the broader market and don’t see many other companies successfully doing that, so that’s something we are really proud of as an organization.

What’s the biggest lesson you’ve learned in the past year? 

In the case of JAMES, that organizations the market might label as “legacy publishers” can collaborate and innovate. We have provided a better customer experience and created the opportunity for higher revenue without compromising on price or product, and what’s more, we did this collaboratively and used a novel technology. It’s a lesson that runs contrary to a lot of conventional wisdom that legacy publishers are declining and that we are not thinking outside the box. In our case, neither of those things is true. 

What’s the biggest risk you’ve taken recently? 

Besides getting News aligned behind artificial intelligence? Ha—eating a ghost chili! In all seriousness, I think the greatest thing about working for a company like The Times, and, more broadly, a News Corp company, is the company’s ability to embrace innovation and change so effectively. But launching a new technology brings with it high expectations, so there was definitely a level of risk in doing that. I’m glad to see it all paid off.

How The Baltimore Sun is growing digital subscriptions

Editor’s note: Throughout the month of August, the GNI Subscriptions Lab hosted workshops with 10 U.S. and Canadian news publishers, including The Baltimore Sun, to explore new opportunities for digital subscriptions growth. Last week, we co-published a report with the Local Media Association (LMA) and FTI Consulting to share what we’ve learned.  

Just today, as I write this post, we at The Baltimore Sun launched a new tactic: Some non-subscribers will be prominently asked to enroll in a free newsletter before reading their first free article of the month. The test was born out of the GNI Subscriptions Lab. Here’s how we used data and collaboration to come up with the idea.

Our digital subscriptions team at Tribune Publishing is always seeking new ideas to boost subscriber relationships and digital revenue to help fund our journalism. In this pursuit, we have attended conferences, participated in webinars and devoured research papers on the topic. So, when the Google News Initiative, FTI Consulting and LMA started the GNI Subscriptions Lab earlier this year to help news publishers accelerate their approaches to digital subscriptions, we eagerly joined with one of our storied brands, The Baltimore Sun. 

Job one in the Lab was measuring the health of our digital subscriptions business. We deployed our data analysts to collect 27 months of observations across 300 variables that contribute to our subscriptions model. After compiling our insights across the entire Lab, we had over 80,000 data points to compare and contrast with our fellow participants. 

This is where the power of the Lab first emerged. We focused on 10 of the most critical performance metrics for a digital subscriptions business, such as visits per unique reader, engagement with the paywall (Meter Stop Rate) and effectiveness in monetizing subscribers (Average Revenue Per Unit). We saw which news organizations had best-in-class metrics, and heard directly from those participants about how they achieved success. 

For example, The Baltimore Sun had one of the highest paywall conversion rates in the group. My team shared how our promotional calendar for subscriptions is thoughtfully constructed; we focus our best offers at the end of each month, which is when most readers finish their monthly free-article allotments and hit our paywall. Conversely, comparing our metrics to our fellow publishers, we saw that we should work to increase the number of times each unique reader visits our site. So, we are now prioritizing desktop alerts as an immediate, peer-recommended method for growing visitor frequency. 

With this aerial view of where we’ve been and, more importantly, where we need to go next, The Baltimore Sun is focused on projects to improve soft spots in our subscriptions metrics.

We selected email capture as our first bulls-eye. We have email addresses for about two percent of our unique users, which is below the Lab's target level of five percent. After brainstorming with the group about how we could improve that metric, we developed our first experiment: a free newsletter offer for some readers before their first metered article. Our goal is to generate more email-sourced subscribers and drive greater newsletter engagement through this approach. 

In the coming weeks and months, we look forward to further collaboration among expert organizers and supportive peer-participants in the Subscriptions Lab. As our expectations rise and new challenges emerge, we must seek (or create!) cooperative environments like this to learn and thrive together as an industry.

Backing Asia Pacific’s emerging newsroom leaders

Across Asia Pacific, a new generation of journalists is telling the region’s stories and tackling the challenges facing the news industry. The Google News Initiative (GNI) Newsroom Leadership Program, a collaboration between GNI and the Columbia School of Journalism, was established to develop the business and product expertise of these emerging newsroom leaders. Today we’re announcing the 2019-2020 Program fellows and sharing more about their projects.  


The projects they chose are as diverse as their backgrounds. These journalists hail from Pakistan to Japan, India to Australia. They’ll be looking at how digital tools can make great storytelling even better, championing socially-conscious reporting and investigating new approaches to political polling. And they’ll explore new membership and revenue models for news, helping fund the future of journalism in their countries. 


As they work on their projects, the fellows will take part in seminars and develop professional networks across the region. To find out more, we spoke to Raju Narisetti, the Director of the Knight-Bagehot Fellowship in Economics and Business Journalism and Professor of Professional Practice at Columbia, who helped develop the program. 


What are the skills you think emerging newsroom leaders need to be successful today?

The most critical skill is an understanding of the business of journalism and the forces shaping the industry. They also need to hone the ability to think of content as a product, and the willingness to let data inform their decisions. These “hard” skills need to be coupled with “power skills” like developing diverse teams, leading with purpose and managing relentless change.


How do you think the GNI Newsroom Leadership Program addresses this?

The fellows will experience a mix of theory and practice in seminars during their in-residence weeks at Columbia School of Journalism.  Practitioners as well as academics will deliver the sessions, which are specifically designed for the media industry. Topics will range from revenue streams and media sustainability to building video, audience and analytics frameworks and teams for the next decade. They’ll also get hands-on workshops on developing leadership and “managing up.”


What words of advice do you have for the fellows as they prepare to go through the program?

Be really present during the in-residency classroom weeks, because your day job will still be waiting for you. Think of the other participants as a learning and sharing opportunity that can become a professional support network during the year and beyond. And have strong beliefs (about your project or the news business), but hold them loosely, so you can embrace new ideas and solutions.


Caption: Our 2019-2020 Fellows, as pictured from left to right, starting from the top left: Gyanu Adhikari, Phillip O’Sullivan, Akane Imamura, Betina Hughes, Danielle Cronin, Marium Chaudhry, Nitya Thirumalai, Hyuntaek Lee, Ragamalika Karthikeyan, Yusuf Wijanarko, Anisa Menur Maulani, and Lynn D’Cruz.

When journalists collaborate instead of compete

At ProPublica, a nonprofit investigative news organization, collaboration is part of our DNA. Since we first started publishing 11 years ago, we've partnered with news organizations all over the U.S., from the Des Moines Register to the New York Times, and from NPR to CBS News. Those collaborations have taken many forms. In the past few years, we’ve taken on very large scale partnerships, working with many newsrooms at once, sharing a data set that hundreds of reporters could use to do their jobs.

We’ve learned that it's not easy to wrangle hundreds of journalists on a single project—but we’ve developed some strategies and tools to help. With the support of the Google News Initiative, we're publishing a guidebook to collaborative data journalism, including big crowdsourced projects like the ones we've done. The guide provides tips for establishing collaboratives, managing workflows and tracking your work. Our collaborative reporting guidebook is available on our website. Our database tool will be available in the fall.

For the past few years, we’ve been working with the Google News Initiative on making large-scale collaborations possible. In 2016 and 2018, we worked together on the Electionland project, which monitored voting problems in real time. (Google provided financial support for the 2016 Electionland.) That project allowed ProPublica and our partners to tell stories about long lines, voter check-in issues, voter ID and much more, reporting on these problems as they arose so that authorities could have the opportunity to address them. 

Starting in 2017, Google and ProPublica have worked together on building tools for Documenting Hate, which tracks hate crimes and bias incidents. We've reported on how hate manifests itself in communities big and small, from schools and universities to superstores and supermarkets. We are now taking what we’ve learned and the tools we’ve built and giving them away so that other newsrooms can launch and run their own collaborations around data. 

When we start a large collaboration, local and national newsrooms sign up to get access to the data we’ve collected, which they can use to report their own stories. That way, we can make the most out of a big set of data, and help reporters all over the country tell stories. We’ve also built software to help organize, verify and share tips; we’ll be making that available for other newsrooms to use later this fall. You can sign up using our form to learn when our collaborative reporting tool is ready.

While collaboration in journalism has grown considerably in the last few years, we know that some newsrooms are still hesitant due to concerns about competing with other media organizations and getting exclusive access to sources. But through our experience with these projects, we know that journalists can do great reporting through collaborations. This guide demonstrates that by working together, newsrooms can benefit by reaching larger audiences, finding new stories and making the most out of large data sets. We hope it will be helpful and will inspire more journalists to work together.

Protecting private browsing in Chrome

Chrome’s Incognito Mode is based on the principle that you should have the choice to browse the web privately. At the end of July, Chrome will remedy a loophole that has allowed sites to detect people who are browsing in Incognito Mode. This will affect some publishers who have used the loophole to deter metered paywall circumvention, so we’d like to explain the background and context of the change.

Private browsing principles

People choose to browse the web privately for many reasons. Some wish to protect their privacy on shared or borrowed devices, or to exclude certain activities from their browsing histories. In situations such as political oppression or domestic abuse, people may have important safety reasons for concealing their web activity and their use of private browsing features.

We want you to be able to access the web privately, with the assurance that your choice to do so is private as well. These principles are consistent with emerging web standards for private browsing modes

Closing the FileSystem API loophole

Today, some sites use an unintended loophole to detect when people are browsing in Incognito Mode. Chrome’s FileSystem API is disabled in Incognito Mode to avoid leaving traces of activity on someone’s device. Sites can check for the availability of the FileSystem API and, if they receive an error message, determine that a private session is occurring and give the user a different experience.  

With the release of Chrome 76 scheduled for July 30, the behavior of the FileSystem API will be modified to remedy this method of Incognito Mode detection. Chrome will likewise work to remedy any other current or future means of Incognito Mode detection.

Publisher impact and strategies

The change will affect sites that use the FileSystem API to intercept Incognito Mode sessions and require people to log in or switch to normal browsing mode, on the assumption that these individuals are attempting to circumvent metered paywalls. 

Unlike hard paywalls or registration walls, which require people to log in to view any content, meters offer a number of free articles before you must log in. This model is inherently porous, as it relies on a site’s ability to track the number of free articles someone has viewed, typically using cookies. Private browsing modes are one of several tactics people use to manage their cookies and thereby "reset" the meter count.

Sites that wish to deter meter circumvention have options such as reducing the number of free articles someone can view before logging in, requiring free registration to view any content, or hardening their paywalls. Other sites offer more generous meters as a way to develop affinity among potential subscribers, recognizing some people will always look for workarounds.  We suggest publishers monitor the effect of the FileSystem API change before taking reactive measures since any impact on user behavior may be different than expected and any change in meter strategy will impact all users, not just those using Incognito Mode.

Our News teams support sites with meter strategies and recognize the goal of reducing meter circumvention, however any approach based on private browsing detection undermines the principles of Incognito Mode. We remain open to exploring solutions that are consistent with user trust and private browsing principles.


Source: Google Chrome


The Compass Experiment is navigating local news in Ohio

I fell in love with journalism while growing up in Ohio, and later while in college at Kent State University. As a student, I tried—and failed—to get an internship at a nearby newspaper I admired, the Youngstown Vindicator. 

But now, 150 years after it started, The Vindicator is closing on August 31. That will leave Youngstown, Ohio, and a larger region of about 500,000 people, without a daily newspaper. The timing of such a loss couldn’t be worse for Youngstown, which has suffered through a tremendous economic downturn over the last 40 years.  

While the area may be struggling financially, Youngstown has a distinct identity and a strong sense of community, which is why we want to help build a path forward for local news. Today, McClatchy announced Youngstown will be the location of The Compass Experiment’s first local news operation, due to launch this fall. 

Compass is a local news lab founded in partnership between McClatchy and Google, and part of the Google News Initiative’s Local Experiments Project. Over the next three years, we will launch and operate three digital-only news operations in small to mid-sized U.S. communities that have limited sources of local, independent journalism. The goal is to not only support the dissemination of news in these communities, but also make the local operations financially self-sustaining, through experimentation with a variety of revenue models. We will also document and share what we've learned with the broader news community, with the intention of creating successful models that can be replicated elsewhere. 

Over the past few weeks, the Compass team has been talking to journalists, community leaders and businesses in the Youngstown area about the area’s news needs. We have found many allies eager to help bring this to life.  

The locations of the remaining Compass sites have not been decided yet. Each site will be independently built and may launch with different platforms and revenue models. All three sites will be 100 percent owned and operated by McClatchy, which has sole editorial control over content. 

In the search for ideal Compass sites, McClatchy has put considerable effort into identifying local markets ripe for innovation in local news. Compass consulted with Penelope Muse Abernathy, the Knight Chair in Journalism and Digital Media Economics at the University of North Carolina and author of a 2018 study on the loss of local journalism in the United States, in analyzing potential communities for the first local digital news sites.  

We at McClatchy are looking forward to continuing our close collaboration with Google as we embark on this next important step. Over the course of the next three years, we will be sharing our successes, failures and what we’ve learned to the media industry at large.  

Compass is currently hiring editorial and business staff from the area to begin work on the Youngstown operation, as well as positions on its central team. In the meantime, please follow along on our Medium page as we develop our Youngstown news operation.

How AI could shape the future of journalism

Editor’s note: What impact can AI have on journalism? That is a question the Google News Initiative is exploring through a partnership with Polis, the international journalism think tank at the London School of Economics and Political Science. The following post is written by Mattia Peretti, who manages the program, called Journalism AI.

From the New York Times using artificial intelligence to find untold stories in millions of archived photos, to Trint using voice recognition to transcribe interviews in multiple languages, journalists around the world are applying AI in new and varied ways. When faced with financial, ethical and editorial questions around how the use of AI could impact their work, modern news organizations are exploring a wide variety of approaches to bring these new technologies to their newsrooms.

With the expert advice of newsroom leaders from Europe, the U.S. and Asia Pacific, we crafted a survey of more than 20 questions, ranging from the technical (which AI technologies have you adopted?) to the ethical (are you aware of AI biases, and how do you avoid them?). Over the last few weeks, newsrooms from all over the world have completed the survey, with contributions coming in from every continent. Their responses will lay the foundation of a report we will publish this fall, to draw a picture of how media is currently using—and could further benefit from—AI technologies.

Journalism AI workshop

Charlie Beckett presenting Journalism AI in London.

The richness and sophistication of the responses we have received so far is overwhelming. Most lament the vagueness surrounding the term “AI” and seek to adopt more precise terminology— machine learning, for example—in newsroom projects and conversations. With applications ranging from understanding readers’ likeliness to subscribe and moderating posts in the comments section, it’s easy to understand why it’s necessary to get more specific. 

Across the board, people generally agree about the motivations for adopting AI-powered technologies: No one expects machines to replace journalists, nor is anyone working towards that. The underlying goal is to delegate routine tasks to machines to free up time for creative work, in-depth investigations and audience engagement.

Today, newsrooms are exploring the potential of these new technologies, but only a few have already implemented AI at scale. For most organizations, the adoption is still in an experimental phase. While some journalists are ambivalent or skeptical, many are curious about how AI will impact workflows and processes and how newsrooms will cope with yet another new phase of disruption. 

Something fundamental is changing in the news industry. New technological challenges and opportunities are encouraging a reflection about the deeper meaning and mission of journalism, as well as the shape and ethics of the news industry in the era of artificial intelligence. As a result, many realize the urgency to explore innovative solutions to sustain the business of news. 

Algorithms and machines can augment the power of journalists, opening up new possibilities and unexplored territories. “AI just doesn’t work on its own, and we can’t expect it to fix all our problems,” one respondent to the survey said. “The best impact can be achieved as a partnership between humans and technology.”

We hope that our survey, and the community that we’re building around Journalism AI, will contribute to the quality and potential of this fascinating encounter.

Table Stakes Europe, a program to help local journalism thrive

Editor’s note: As part of the Google News Initiative, we work with news publishing partners across the world on efforts to help the industry thrive in the digital age. The following post comes from one of our partners Vincent Peyregne, CEO of WAN-IFRA.

Trust, democracy and civic engagement often take root within communities and neighborhoods. Local news plays a critical role in this process, and high quality and financially sustainable local journalism is indispensable for local communities to thrive.

Yet, unlike global news brands, local and regional newspapers don’t have—and can’t realistically grow—audiences beyond the geographies in which they operate, which makes it challenging to keep up with the changing nature of digital journalism. 

WAN-IFRA and the Google News Initiative are joining forces to launch Table Stakes Europe, a program to help local and regional newspapers find new ways to build local audiences, prosper in a digital world and perform their crucial role in society. Started in 2015 in the U.S., our vision with Table Stakes is to show how local changes make a global impact

Table Stakes Europe will build upon the proven Table Stakes approach, plus coaching methodologies that have helped dozens of local news organizations in the U.S.  improve their audience and digital capabilities and results. The Program is designed to help small and medium local and regional newspapers in Europe transform their business, increase consumer-based revenue, and build digital capabilities.

The program will begin in October 2019, and run for 10 to 12 months. We expect at least 10 small and medium local and regional news enterprises to participate from a variety of countries and backgrounds. Small and medium local and regional newspaper organizations can apply to the program by September 1st.

WAN-IFRA and the Google News Initiative are excited about bringing this opportunity to local news organizations in Europe and are looking forward to sharing the lessons and best practices with the industry at large throughout and at the end of the program.

Journalism and AI team up to measure missing stories

Violent organized crime is one of the biggest crises facing Mexico, and it places journalists in harm’s way. Murders are a daily occurrence in many parts of the country, and research shows that Mexico is the most deadly place in the world for reporters outside of active war zones. The natural desire to avoid becoming a target has led some journalists to choose to stay quiet to save their lives.

Something akin to a code of silence has emerged across the country. We suspected that there were entire regions where journalists were not reporting on the violence, threats, intimidation and murder that were well known to be part of daily life.

We set out to measure this silence and its impact on journalism. To do so, we partnered with the Google News Initiative to use the power of machine learning and artificial intelligence to quantify and visualize news coverage and analyze the gaps in coverage across the country.

Our first step was to establish a process to determine the absence of news. We explored articles on violence to understand how they compare to the government's official registry of homicides.

In theory, each murder that occurs ought to correspond with at least one local report about the event. If we saw a divergence, or if the government's reports were suddenly very different from local news coverage, we could deduce that journalists were being silenced.

Early on, sorting through news articles seemed impossible. We knew we needed to find a news archive with the largest number of publications in Mexico possible so we could track daily coverage across the country. Google News’ vast collection of local and national news stories across Mexico was a good fit.

The effort required us to identify the difference between the number of homicides officially recorded and the news stories of those killings on Google News. This required machine learning algorithms that were able to identify the first reported story and then pinpoint where the event took place. With that information, we were able to connect reported events by media with the government's reports on homicides across more than 2400 municipalities in Mexico.

El Universal 3D map

A map of unreported murders across Mexico that were identified through El Universal’s project.  

Finally, to measure the degree of silence in each region of the country, we created a formula that allows us to see the evolution of this phenomenon over time. The resulting data shows a fascinating mix of falls or peaks in unreported deaths, which coincide with events such as the arrival of new governments or the deaths of drug dealers. Further investigation will allow us to explain these connections.

At El Universal, we’re committed to continue our search for news deserts, to enhance the vitality of journalism in Mexico and draw attention to how coverage varies according to the type of crimes committed in each region, not just homicides.

This exercise is another reminder that in Mexico, as in many other countries, we cannot take freedom of the press for granted.