In order to solve tasks, deep neural networks (DNNs) progressively transform input data into a sequence of complex representations (i.e., patterns of activations across individual neurons). Understanding these representations is critically important, not only for interpretability, but also so that we can more intelligently design machine learning systems. However, understanding these representations has proven quite difficult, especially when comparing representations across networks. In a previous post, we outlined the benefits of Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) as a tool for understanding and comparing the representations of convolutional neural networks (CNNs), showing that they converge in a bottom-up pattern, with early layers converging to their final representations before later layers over the course of training.
In “Insights on Representational Similarity in Neural Networks with Canonical Correlation” we develop this work further to provide new insights into the representational similarity of CNNs, including differences between networks which memorize (e.g., networks which can only classify images they have seen before) from those which generalize (e.g., networks which can correctly classify previously unseen images). Importantly, we also extend this method to provide insights into the dynamics of recurrent neural networks (RNNs), a class of models that are particularly useful for sequential data, such as language. Comparing RNNs is difficult in many of the same ways as CNNs, but RNNs present the additional challenge that their representations change over the course of a sequence. This makes CCA, with its helpful invariances, an ideal tool for studying RNNs in addition to CNNs. As such, we have additionally open sourced the code used for applying CCA on neural networks with the hope that will help the research community better understand network dynamics.
Representational Similarity of Memorizing and Generalizing CNNs
Ultimately, a machine learning system is only useful if it can generalize to new situations it has never seen before. Understanding the factors which differentiate between networks that generalize and those that don’t is therefore essential, and may lead to new methods to improve generalization performance. To investigate whether representational similarity is predictive of generalization, we studied two types of CNNs:
- generalizing networks: CNNs trained on data with unmodified, accurate labels and which learn solutions which generalize to novel data.
- memorizing networks: CNNs trained on datasets with randomized labels such that they must memorize the training data and cannot, by definition, generalize (as in Zhang et al., 2017).
We found that groups of different generalizing networks consistently converged to more similar representations (especially in later layers) than groups of memorizing networks (see figure below). At the softmax, which denotes the network’s ultimate prediction, the CCA distance for each group of generalizing and memorizing networks decreases substantially, as the networks in each separate group make similar predictions.
Understanding the Training Dynamics of Recurrent Neural Networks
So far, we have only applied CCA to CNNs trained on image data. However, CCA can also be applied to calculate representational similarity in RNNs, both over the course of training and over the course of a sequence. Applying CCA to RNNs, we first asked whether the RNNs exhibit the same bottom-up convergence pattern we observed in our previous work for CNNs. To test this, we measured the CCA distance between the representation at each layer of the RNN over the course of training with its final representation at the end of training. We found that the CCA distance for layers closer to the input dropped earlier in training than for deeper layers, demonstrating that, like CNNs, RNNs also converge in a bottom-up pattern (see figure below).
These findings reinforce the utility of analyzing and comparing DNN representations in order to provide insights into network function, generalization, and convergence. However, there are still many open questions: in future work, we hope to uncover which aspects of the representation are conserved across networks, both in CNNs and RNNs, and whether these insights can be used to improve network performance. We encourage others to try out the code used for the paper to investigate what CCA can tell us about other neural networks!
Special thanks to Samy Bengio, who is a co-author on this work. We also thank Martin Wattenberg, Jascha Sohl-Dickstein and Jon Kleinberg for helpful comments.