Over 1 billion fans come to YouTube each month to connect with their favorite artists and discover new music. Thanks to a new partnership with Eventbrite, we’re making it simple for fans to go from experiencing music online to seeing live performances.
Starting today, fans watching videos from YouTube Official Artist Channels will see Eventbrite listings for live music performances throughout the U.S. below the video. With one easy click on the “Tickets” button, they’ll be able to purchase directly from Eventbrite.
Live events continue to be a major source of revenue for artists, so we want to help artists keep fans updated on their upcoming shows and sell more tickets to live performances. YouTube’s global audience also lets artists find new fans with 26% of Millenials (44% of teens) claiming they discover live music events on YouTube, according to Nielsen.
Through our partnerships with Eventbrite and Ticketmaster, YouTube now covers more than 70% of the US ticketing market and we’ll continue to add new artists and venues of all sizes to our list in North America as well as expand globally.
We're excited to further the power of video discovery on Youtube to bring artists and fans together and continue supporting those connections through live shows.
A great teacher can unleash a student’s curiosity and change the direction of their life. Today, in honor of World Teachers' Day, we are celebrating some of the amazing teachers around the globe who share their passion for education in the classroom and on YouTube.
Elia is a math teacher at the Liceo Scientifico Galilei in Trento and at Liceo Steam International in Rovereto. Not only is his YouTube channel a great place to quickly review key math concepts before an exam, it’s also full of science experiments that range from making a coin battery to exploring how a cloud is formed.
Jeerapat Sukanghong is a primary school teacher from the Phetchabun province of Thailand who is passionate about bringing her lessons to students in all corners of the country. Inspired by the late King Rama IX’s initiative to bring education to students in remote places via satellite, she decided to start her own journey on YouTube. Combining music and pop culture moments, notably adapting some of her own lessons into the viral PPAP format, Jeeraphat’s fun approach to teaching makes her one of the most popular creators in Thailand with over 5 million subscribers across both her channels.
Rafael is a Brazilian mathematics professor who uses his YouTube channel to experiment with new and creative visual techniques for teaching math. Rafael, who has become a beloved figure in his hometown of Rio de Janeiro, has over 1.3 million subscribers on his channels.
Rachel’s English (USA)
Rachel’s English is a YouTube channel dedicated to helping non-native speakers improve their spoken English and listening comprehension. Having taught ESL off and on since 1999, Rachel became interested in developing a pronunciation-focused resource while living in Germany under the Rotary Ambassadorial Scholarship program in 2008. Rachel, who is also a classical singer, studied with highly acclaimed vocal teachers and coaches and brings a body of detailed knowledge connected to the voice, placement, and the musical nature of speech to her work as a pronunciation coach.
Eddie has a unique ability to take complex mathematical concepts out of the abstract, and into the real world — whether it be recognizing geometric patterns in nature or the daily arithmetic required to balance a family checkbook. Though he claims to have once struggled with the subject, his unique approach to teaching math has gained him a global following of nearly 400,000 subscribers, and propelled him to become a finalist for the 2018 Global Teacher Award. He recently published his first book, Woo’s Wonderful World of Maths.
Dawid is a PhD student and chemistry teacher at the Marie Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin. Dawid’s channel examines a broad array of scientific topics, such as the true value of gold or the placebo effect in research, and in doing so has attracted over 335,000 subscribers. He also created a docu-series about the Chernobyl disaster.
Check out this playlist to see other great teachers on YouTube, and read more about what we're doing to support educators today and everyday.
YouTube is thrilled to debut "Shawn Mendes," its latest Artist Spotlight Story, created in collaboration with international pop phenomenon Shawn Mendes. The Spotlight Story gives fans an authentic and intimate look into Shawn’s life following the launch of his latest self-titled album. Mendes has grown to be one of the most popular musicians today with a massive fanbase that stemmed from his early YouTube uploads covering other artists.
"It was just about doing it for fun and posting videos,” Shawn recalls of his earliest YouTube uploads in "Shawn Mendes," the latest installment of the Artist Spotlight Stories series from YouTube Music. “I wasn't dreaming about stadiums, or Grammys. I was dreaming of my friends being like, 'That's very cool. I love that. You sounded great.' I just wanted to be that guy who sang and played guitar on YouTube.”
Directed by YouTube Creator, filmmaker, and longtime friend Casey Neistat, "Shawn Mendes" looks back on Mendes’ journey from uploading covers to YouTube in his suburban-Toronto bedroom to performing on the world’s biggest stages as he gets ready to release his self-titled third album. Casey follows Shawn on the road and documents his rise to stardom through revealing interviews that showcase Shawn’s hard-working nature and youthful resilience.
With 15.7 million fans subscribed to his official channel, the three-time Juno winner is currently one of the biggest musicians on the planet. He's racked up 2.2 billion views across YouTube in the past 12 months alone, with “Treat You Better” and “Stitches” both passing the billion-view mark — making him the youngest artist to have more than one video break nine digits. More recently, his 2018 anthem “In My Blood” charted on YouTube in over 15 countries and landed the singer three MTV VMA nominations.
YouTube Music’s Artist Spotlight Stories are intimate and personal video portraits of artists who are pushing the boundaries of creativity and connecting with fans in unique and powerful ways on YouTube. Recent YouTube Spotlight Stories include Janelle Monáe: "A Revolution of Love," J Balvin: "Redefining Mainstream," G-Eazy: "These Things Happened," and Camila Cabello: "Made in Miami." The series is meant to shine a light on artist journeys and how they have leveraged YouTube to be successful, in hopes that their stories inspire others in the music community to do the same.
Cross-posted from the YouTube Creator Blog YouTube is where the world watches gaming. More than 200 million of you come to YouTube every single day to watch gaming videos and streams. That’s like the entire country of Brazil heading to YouTube daily. And that’s because of you, the community of gamers and creators who have turned YouTube into the gaming video platform it is today. From mobile gaming to strategy guides, Let’s Plays to Esports and charity live streams, you’ve created a place for everyone, from hard core to casual gamers.
We’re always working to make the gaming experience on YouTube better. Over the past few years we’ve focused on building tools and experiences that the gaming community has been asking for. That’s why in 2015, we launched YouTube Gaming, a standalone app for gamers where we tested new features like Game Pages for better discoverability, Super Chat and Channel Memberships to help fans show support for their favorite creators, Dark Theme and even a new live streaming platform based on the gaming community’s feedback. The response to these features has been so positive that we brought them over from the YouTube Gaming app to the main YouTube experience.
Today, we’re launching a new Gaming destination to give gamers a home on YouTube! You can find the new YouTube Gaming destination at youtube.com/gaming.
At the very top of the page you’ll see personalized gaming content based on what you like to watch. You’ll also see top live games and the latest gaming videos from your subscriptions, bringing the best of uploaded videos and live gaming to one destination. We’ve also built dedicated shelves for live streams and trending videos.
Everyone has a favorite game. You can now find gaming videos from all over YouTube, related to that specific game on new game pages. These include popular videos, live streams, and other games from the same publisher or developer. With tens of thousands of different game pages, you’ll be able to find content no matter how big or small the game is.
We want to do more to help our smaller creators grow on YouTube too, so we’ll be highlighting gaming creators who are “On The Rise” on the Gaming destination and in Trending. Each week we’ll showcase a new up and coming gaming creator to help more fans discover their content. This is launching in the U.S., and we’ll continue to roll this out to more countries in the future.
We have a strong and vibrant audience on the YouTube Gaming app, but the amount of gamers we are able to reach is far bigger on YouTube. After all, YouTube is where more than 200 million gamers come to engage with your favorite games and creators every day, watching over 50 billion hours of gaming content in the last 12 months alone. That’s why, in March 2019, we’ll retire the YouTube Gaming app and focus all of our gaming efforts on YouTube where we can reach our entire gaming community.
From creators like elrubiusOMG who has hit live gaming records, to Ninja, the fastest growing creator in YouTube’s history who helped usher in the era of Fortnite, or itsFunneh who became one of our biggest gaming creators by making us all laugh with Minecraft and Roblox videos, we thank you for building a strong gaming community on YouTube. We’re committed to helping gaming creators succeed and look forward to seeing how you all continue to shape the future of gaming.
We believe that no two families are the same -- and that their needs are ever-changing as they grow up. That’s why we are committed to building YouTube Kids in a way that offers kids the content they love and grown-ups the tools to customize the app as they see fit. Today we’re excited to launch two updates we think families will really enjoy: parent-approved content and a new experience for older kids.
First, we’re following up on our April announcement and sharing that we’ve launched parent-approved content. This highly requested parental control allows parents to handpick every video and channel available to their child in the app. It is available today globally on Android and coming soon to iOS.
For parents who want to enable this feature, open settings, go to the child’s profile and select “approved content only.” Now they’re ready to start picking videos for their kids.
Parents can choose any video, channel or collection of channels they like by tapping the "+" button. Parents can also search for a specific creator or video. If parents choose to enable this mode, their kids will not be able to search for content on their own.
What's more, YouTube Kids is growing up with our users. We have launched a new experience geared toward 8-12 year olds that includes additional new content, like popular music and gaming videos. If parents think their kids are ready, they can pick this "Older" version when setting up a new profile or updating an existing profile. The "Younger" version is the default content experience and will continue to have a wide selection of sing-alongs and age-appropriate learning videos. Parents can change between "Younger," "Older" and parent-approved content at any time. We've started to roll out the new older experience in the U.S. with plans to expand globally.
We work hard to make videos in the app family friendly, but no system is perfect. It’s always possible that a parent may find something they don’t want their child to watch in the “Younger” or “Older” experiences. If this happens, we ask that parents block and flag the video for review by our team. This makes YouTube Kids better for everyone.
As we continue to receive feedback from parents and turn that feedback into improvements to the YouTube Kids app, we hope that all families and kids can create the experience they want!
Happy watching from our family to yours,
James Beser, Product Director for YouTube Kids, recently viewed "Water Bottle Flip 2" from Dude Perfect
At Google I/O in May, we introduced new tools that help people better understand their tech usage, focus on what matters most and disconnect when needed. Starting today, you can find all of the YouTube tools in one place, alongside your personal time watched profile. Our goal is to provide a better understanding of time spent on YouTube, so you can make informed decisions about how you want YouTube to best fit into your life.
Here are a few tips and tricks to get you started toward building your own sense of digital wellbeing:
Know how much you actually watch (new!): To give you a better understanding of how much you watch, we’ve built a profile that’s available in your account menu rolling out starting today. This profile tells you how long you’ve watched YouTube videos today, yesterday and over the past 7 days.
Remind yourself to take a break: Once you know how much time you’re spending in the app, you may want to set a limit. It’s easy to lose track of time when you’re having fun, which is why we’ll help you set up a reminder to take a break. Just head over to your settings and pick the amount of YouTube time that’s right for you. Once you’ve hit that limit, a friendly reminder will pop up on your screen.
Keep it to one notification a day: If you want more control over when you receive notifications from YouTube, you can bundle all of your YouTube push notifications into a single notification each day and set a specific time to receive your digest. Just go to your settings to choose when you’d like to receive your digest, and from then on you’ll only receive one notification per day.
Disable notification sounds and vibrations: Resisting the urge to check your phone when it buzzes is really difficult, and this can make it hard to fall asleep. So we’ve recently made a change to send all notifications without sound and vibration between 10pm and 8am. You can enable sounds and vibrations, or customize the start and end time in your settings.
We’re dedicated to making sure that you have the information you need to better understand how you use YouTube and develop your own sense of digital wellbeing. We hope these tips are a good start.
We love VR at YouTube because it’s a powerful way to see and experience the world. Have you ever wondered what it’s like in the ice caves of Antarctica? How about underneath the Victoria Falls or courtside at the NBA Finals? Virtual Reality lets you experience these moments as if you’re actually there. When you have questions about the world, it can transport you to where the answers are.
During the last three years I’ve spent working on YouTube VR, I’ve loved seeing how our creators use this emerging technology to tell stories, share experiences, and make visible things that have previously been left unseen. With a lot of new things happening in VR today, I thought I’d take a moment to share with you a few of the things I’m most excited about: bringing our app to new platforms; adding new features and tools that make VR feel even more immersive; and exclusive new content that can bring you to more places.
Experience YouTube VR on Samsung Gear VR, powered by Oculus We want everyone with a VR headset to be able to experience YouTube VR. It’s already available on Daydream View, HTC Vive and PlayStation VR. Starting today, we’re expanding access to millions of people with Gear VR headsets. You’ll be able to download the app from the Oculus Store for free starting this week.
Share your VR experience with the YouTube community We believe that one of the best ways to experience VR is with other people. So today we’re introducing a new feature in the YouTube VR app that lets you watch and discuss videos with others in a communal, virtual space.
This new feature can be accessed from the YouTube VR app by clicking on the “Watch Together” icon beneath the play controls from your Daydream View or Gear VR.
Enjoy new, exclusive VR content YouTube VR is already home to more than 800,000 experiences in the virtual world, and this summer, we’ll bring you more exclusive experiences.
If music is your thing, you’ll be able to tag along backstage with Portugal. The Man and Hayley Kiyoko as they prepare to go on stage, and get a behind-the-scenes look into the lives of some of our other favorite musicians through the VR180 Rockstar VR series.
You’ll also be able to spend a day with global female leaders, including activist, entrepreneur, and Olympic bronze medalist in fencing, Ibtihaj Muhammad, the first Muslim-American woman to wear a hijab while competing for the U.S. in the Olympics on a new episode of our The Female Planet series.
If action videos are more your speed, SoKrispyMedia puts you in the middle of a video game, where you can race to escape a digital world before a glitch traps you there forever.
VR can take you anywhere, and YouTube VR can bring you to more places in the virtual world than anywhere else. I’ve never been more excited about the next places VR storytellers, explorers and the community will take us -- letting us experience them as if we’re actually there.
The work of trusted journalistic organizations is as critical as ever, especially when it comes to seeking information about current events online.
In March, the Google News Initiative (GNI) kicked off with the goal of helping journalism thrive in the digital age. Today, we’re announcing steps we’re taking with the GNI to support the future of news in online video, and product features we’ve been working on to improve the news experience on YouTube.
Supporting journalism with technology that allows news to thrive We believe quality journalism requires sustainable revenue streams and that we have a responsibility to support innovation in products and funding for news.
For example, in 2015 European publishers came to us to ask about how they could scale their video efforts, especially because maintaining video delivery infrastructure is costly. Working alongside them we launched Player for Publishers, a solution that enables news organizations to use YouTube’s video player to give viewers a world-class video experience across their own websites and mobile apps. Player for Publishers reduces costs and offers improved monetization for news organizations.
Since then, we've expanded these efforts beyond Europe. Today, over 100 publishers in more than 25 countries use Player for Publishers.
As part of the launch of GNI in March, we announced funding to support the future of news. Today we are committing $25M to a YouTube-specific investment:
Expertise. We’re establishing a working group with news organizations and experts from around the world to help us develop new product features, improve the news experience on YouTube, and tackle emerging challenges. News organizations including Vox Media, Jovem Pan, and India Today are early members of the working group. We’re looking forward to having more join as we convene the group in the coming weeks.
Innovation Funding. We will provide funding across approximately 20 global markets to support news organizations in building sustainable video operations. Provided on an application basis to news organizations of all types, these grants will enable our partners to build key capabilities, train staff on video best practices, enhance production facilities and develop formats optimized for online video.
Support. We’re significantly expanding our team focused on supporting news publishers. These specialists will be based around the world and support partners with training and best practices in formats, audience development, day-to-day platform operations, and sophisticated technical integrations.
News organizations interested in more information about these efforts can sign up here.
Making authoritative sources readily accessible Authoritativeness is essential to viewers, especially during fast-moving, breaking news events, so we’ve been investing in new product features to prominently surface authoritative sources:
Providing more sources and context on breaking news After a breaking news event, it takes time to verify, produce and publish high-quality videos. Journalists often write articles first to break the news rather than produce videos. That’s why in the coming weeks in the U.S. we will start providing a short preview of news articles in search results on YouTube that link to the full article during the initial hours of a major news event, along with a reminder that breaking and developing news can rapidly change.
Expanding Top News and Breaking News To make it easier to find quality news, our Top News shelf prominently highlights videos from news sources in search results (see the picture below on the left). And when a breaking news event happens, we want users to know about it. That’s why our Breaking News shelf highlights videos from news organizations about that event directly on the YouTube homepage (see the picture below on the right). Today, our Top News and Breaking News features are launched in 17 countries, including the U.S., U.K., France, Italy, Japan, India, Mexico, Brazil, South Africa, Nigeria and more. We will double that number in the coming months.
Showcasing more local news, starting with the U.S. Many people want, value, and trust local news. And when a major event happens, local reporters are often the first on site to capture events as they unfold. We’ve begun testing features that surface local news in the YouTube app for TV screens across 25 media markets around the United States, making it easy to access local news in the living room--our fastest growing screen. So far, local news has seen strong engagement, and we will be expanding it to dozens more markets like Cincinnati, Las Vegas and Kansas City.
Providing context to help people make their own decisions We also believe users should be able to choose and make their own judgments about the information they consume along with context to inform their judgments. That’s why we’re rolling out a few new features that we will continue to build upon:
Giving users more sources of information on topical searches and videos Starting today, users will begin seeing information from third parties, including Wikipedia and Encyclopædia Britannica, alongside videos on a small number of well-established historical and scientific topics that have often been subject to misinformation, like the moon landing and the Oklahoma City Bombing.
Investing in digital literacy education Along with the Google News Initiative and Google.org, we have teamed up with the Poynter Institute, Stanford University, Local Media Association, and the National Association for Media Literacy Education (NAMLE) to support MediaWise, a U.S.-based initiative designed to equip 1 million teens with digital literacy skills. Six incredible YouTube Creators, including John Green, Ingrid Nilsen, and Mark Watson, will be working with MediaWise to bring awareness to digital literacy and help educate teens.
We remain committed to working with the journalism community to build a more sustainable video ecosystem for news organizations. We know there is a lot of work to do, but we’re eager to provide a better experience to users who come to YouTube every day to learn more about what is happening in the world from a diversity of sources.
- Neal Mohan, Chief Product Officer and Robert Kyncl, Chief Business Officer
I just stepped off the stage at VidCon, a conference created from scratch by Hank and John Green in 2010 that brings together fans, creators, and industry leaders to celebrate the power of online video. I talked about how over the last 13 years, YouTube has grown from an ambitious idea into a worldwide movement built on free expression and the power of openness.
With more than 1.9 billion logged-in users who come to YouTube every month and localized versions stretching across 90 countries and 80 languages, we’re opening up the world to anyone with a cell phone and an internet connection.
YouTube is a vibrant community where everyone has a voice. Every day, creators use their voice to entertain, spur action and bring about positive change. That’s why over the last year we’ve doubled down on building the products and tools that the creator community needs. Not only to thrive on YouTube, but to continue to develop the video platform of the future.
The next big steps for creator monetization
YouTube lets creators connect with their community and gives them the opportunity to earn money while doing what they love. Thanks to advertisers, creators around the world have been able to build businesses, creating an entirely new global economy that’s seen incredible growth. The number of creators earning five figures a year is up by 35 percent and the number of creators earning six figures is up by 40 percent. As in previous years, the vast majority of the revenue is coming from our advertising partners. We’ll continue investing here, but we also want to think beyond ads. Creators should have as many ways and opportunities to make money as possible.
We’ve been working on new tools that not only help creators better engage with their fans, they also enable them to make money while doing it. This is an idea that really began last year with Super Chat, a product that allows fans to purchase messages that stand out within a live chat. We’ve seen tremendous success with Super Chat and have since expanded to Ticketing, Merchandise, Channel Memberships and more. We’re also bringing creators and brands together to form unique marketing partnerships via FameBit.
With Channel Memberships, viewers pay a monthly recurring fee of $4.99 to get unique badges, new emoji, Members-only posts in the Community tab, and access to unique custom perks offered by creators, such as exclusive livestreams, extra videos, or shout-outs. Channel Memberships have already been available for a select group of creators on YouTube as Sponsorships. We’ve seen a lot of creators find success with this new business model. So, we’ll soon be expanding this to eligible channels with more than 100,000 subscribers on YouTube under the new name Channel Memberships. We hope to bring it to even more creators in the coming months.
Creators who have already been experimenting with this feature on YouTube have seen encouraging results. Since launching in January, comedy creator Mike Falzone more than tripled his YouTube revenue. And traveling duo Simon and Martina have built a closer-knit community and revamped a miniseries exclusively for their members, in more than 30 countries from Finland to the Philippines.
Merchandise has been a part of many creators’ businesses for a long time. We want to make it easier for more creators to sell merch directly from their channel. So we’ve built a product that allows them to do just that. From shirts with a logo to phone cases with a creator’s face, we’ve joined forces with Teespring so creators can choose from over 20 merchandise items to customize and sell via a shelf on their channel. This will be available to all eligible U.S.-based channels with over 10,000 subscribers starting today, and we plan to bring even more merchandising partners and creators in soon.
Just take a look at Joshua Slice’s merchandise shelf. The creator of Lucas the Spider recently turned his hero character into a plushie selling over 60,000 furry friends and generating over $1 million in profit in just 18 days, according to Teespring.
The engagement between fans and creators is at the heart of YouTube. We’re working on new ways to help creators strengthen those unique bonds. Livestreams have brought the YouTube community together during the biggest music, science, and gaming events. We’ve also built a Community Tab that allows creators to move beyond just video to build even deeper connections with fans through GIFs, pics, polls, and text. And we’ve started experimenting with our take on Stories, but designed specifically for YouTube creators—coming to all eligible creators with more than 10,000 subscribers later this year.
Today, we’re introducing a new way for creators to upload content to YouTube called Premieres. With Premieres, creators will be able to debut pre-recorded videos as a live moment. When creators choose to release a Premiere, we’ll automatically create a public landing page to build anticipation and hype up new content. When all fans show up to watch the premiere, they’ll be able to chat with each other (and with the creator!) in real time via live chat. It’s as if a creator’s entire community is in one theater together watching their latest upload.
Premieres also unlocks new revenue streams. For the first time, creators can use Super Chat on traditional YouTube uploads and take advantage of Channel Memberships perks that were previously only available on Live videos.
YouTube creators are the heartbeat of our platform. That’s why we’re committed to building products that empower and support the creator community. We hope these tools help creators build a stronger community and earn more money while doing it, because when they succeed, the entire YouTube community thrives.
The wait is over! Starting today, YouTube Music is available to everyone in the U.S, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico and South Korea* in addition to 12 new countries including Austria, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Russia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Now fans around the world can find more of the music they love and effortlessly discover new favorites.
YouTube Music is a new music streaming service built on top of all the music on YouTube that you can’t find anywhere else - personalized and all simply organized in one new app and web player.
Recommendations built for you. A home screen that dynamically adapts to provide recommendations based on the artists and songs you’ve played before, where you are and what you’re doing. Chilling at the beach? Need some motivation? The right music is right here, built just for you.
Thousands of playlists across any genre, mood or activity. Try “A Dose of Sun” for brighter tunes on a cloudy day, “The Pop Hotlist” for the biggest hits around the world or “Distrito Latino” for Latin pop hits of the moment.
Smart search so we’ll find the song, even if you can’t remember what it’s called. “That space-themed Spice Girls song in the desert.” Here you go. You can also search by lyrics (even if they’re wrong). It’s “Hold me closer, Tony Danza,” right?
Ad-free listening, downloads and more. Get YouTube Music Premium to listen ad-free, in the background and on-the-go with downloads. Plus, your Offline Mixtape automatically downloads songs you love just in case you forgot to. For a limited time, get three months free of YouTube Music Premiumhere, ($9.99 per month after, $14.99 per month for a Family Plan)*.
YouTube Premium also launches today Starting today, YouTube Premium (formerly YouTube Red) will be available in 17 countries, providing members with the benefits of Music Premium, plus ad-free, background, and downloads across all of YouTube. YouTube Premium members also get access to the full slate of YouTube Originals shows and movies including the hit series Cobra Kai, Impulse, F2 Finding Football and The Sidemen Show. For a limited time, get three months free of YouTube Premium here, ($11.99 per month after, $17.99 per month for a Family Plan)*.
Current YouTube Red and Google Play Music members (including family plans) in the U.S., Australia, New Zealand, and Mexico will automatically receive access to YouTube Premium at their current price. Google Play Music subscribers in all other countries will automatically receive access to YouTube Music Premium at their current price as it becomes available there. Nothing is changing with Google Play Music - you'll still be able to access all of your purchased music, uploads and playlists in Google Play Music just like always.
*YouTube Music Premium is $9.99 per month and YouTube Premium is $11.99 per month for individual memberships in the U.S. Pricing and Family Plan availability varies by country. South Korea will only offer YouTube Premium at the current price of YouTube Red.